Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine how to treat
Staphylococcus - choose a doctor
Staphylococcal organisms are constantly in close proximity to humans. Most of them are conditionally pathogenic flora and even live inside our body.
However, sometimes staphylococcus in the intestine, nasopharynx, on the skin and in other organs causes the disease.
Types of bacteria
There are three main variants of staphylococcus:
Each of the pathogens can cause a disease or simply show up in the human body.The most unfavorable type is Staphylococcus aureus. especially if it is found in a child. However, the asymptomatic carriage of this strain is also possible.
This or that pathology depends little on the type of staphylococcus. Much more important are the entrance gates of infection and the general condition of the body. The more weakened a person, the harder the pathology caused by staphylococcus will be. However, when a doctor treats a staphylococcal infection, he first determines the type of bacteria. The severity of the process and its treatment will depend on the specifi
Types of diseases
Staphylococci cause pathology not in all people. The causes of problems are any factors that weaken the body.
In this case, the following groups of lesions may occur in humans: staphylococcus:
- Skin diseases.Include furuncles, carbuncles, abscesses, phlegmon and so on. Symptoms of such diseases are found on the skin, but there may be violations of the general condition. The main danger is the generalization of the process and the development of sepsis.
- Lesions of bones and joints. Most often, these are secondary phenomena that arise from the circulation of bacteria in the blood. An autoimmune process is also possible.
- Lesion of ENT organs. The group includes sinusitis and other sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis and so on. There are no distinctive features in pathologies. However, the doctor treats the disease only after the exact setting of the pathogen and the test for sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Defeat of the respiratory system. These include severe pneumonia, which can result in a heart attack. Their therapy is very difficult.
- Intestinal diseases. May be caused by the ingestion of the pathogen in the digestive tract or the use of its toxin with spoiled food. Pathologies are characterized by abundant diarrhea.
- Endocarditis. Heavy disease, which affects the heart valves. It is accompanied by the development of heart failure.
- Defeat of the brain and its membranes. It is a consequence of sepsis and it is extremely difficult. Pathologies are urgent and require immediate treatment.
- Defeat of the urinary system. Cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethritis and other inflammatory processes develop. The course does not differ from pathologies caused by other bacteria.
- Diseases of the eyes. There are various inflammations, for example, conjunctivitis.
Consult a doctor with staphylococcus in the throat, intestines, kidneys or any other organ immediately. The main problem is that even curing pathology, it is not always possible to get rid of the pathogen. People become carriers of the infection, they are at risk and may not be allowed to some types of industry.
To what doctor to go?
The specialty of the doctor to be contacted will depend entirely on the type of disease. If there is any doubt in choosing a doctor, you can first go to a therapist who will carry out the diagnosis and refer you to the right doctor.
The main specialist in staphylococcal pathologies is the infectious disease specialist.However, it is treated in severe cases, when there are difficulties with treatment and diagnosis.
Doctors who treat staphylococcus:
- Surgeon (all pathologies of the skin);
- otolaryngologist (nasopharynx, ears, throat);
- ophthalmologist (problems with the eyes);
- dentist (caries and stomatitis);
- dermatologist (the doctor treats the pathology of the skin, not requiring surgical intervention);
- pediatrician (doctor to treat Staphylococcus aureus in children);
- immunologist (if the cause is a deficit of immunity);
- the endocrinologist (is the auxiliary doctor to which direct for consultation at suspicion on a diabetes mellitis).
The basis of therapy for staphylococcus are antibacterial drugs. appoint only a doctor. Each of the strains of the pathogen has its own characteristics in the treatment, so before the therapy is carried out, the detection of the bacterium. After this, the doctor treating the Staphylococcus aureus, when checking the results of the antibiotic sensitivity test, prescribes medications. In parallel, pathogenetic and symptomatic therapies are carried out.
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Group of antibiotics against staphylococcal infection
Treatment of staphylococcus with antibiotics is considered the most acceptable method of combating this microorganism, since, only these chemicals are capable of causing complete elimination of bacteria in the body rights. This microbe is a rounded living entity, living only in a colony with other representatives of this bacterium.
It should be noted that he is a constant human companion and with normal immune function does not cause disease. In humans, the disease can cause the following three types of staphylococcus, namely: saprophytic, epidermal and golden.
What antibacterial drugs can achieve eradication of microorganisms?
The main antibiotics from staphylococcus # 8212; These drugs are a group of penicillins, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. But nevertheless, in nature there are many staphylococci, insensitive to penicillins and even the rest of the groups.
Such strains are called "methicillin-resistant" and annually their number is added to 10% all over the world, in particular, such data are obtained in the USA. It is necessary to note that deaths from infection with such microorganisms reach 30%, despite the treatment being undertaken. It is important to understand that antibiotics for staphylococcal infection are the only method of treatment and prevention of lethal complications.
It is important to understand that without the use of antibacterial therapy, it is impossible to achieve complete eradication of microorganisms and treat the diseases caused by it.
Antibiotics for staphylococcus aureus (golden, epidermal and saprophytic):
Brief description of antibacterial agents
Clarithromycinbelongs to the group of macrolides and is characterized by the fact that it is sufficiently resistant to increased acidity and has a pronounced antibacterial effect, especially with staphylococcal infection caused by golden strain. It is successfully used in the treatment of diseases of the upper respiratory tract and sinuses, as well as diseases of the bronchopulmonary tree.
Clarithromine can be used for pustular skin diseases, and subcutaneously fatty tissue.
It is important to note that clarithromycin has the property of penetrating into the interior of a microorganism and destroying its core, thereby promoting the penetration of other antibacterial drugs into Staphylococcus aureus or streptococcus by killing them while doing so.
Azithromycinalso refers to macrolides and its effect on the bacterial wall is similar to clarithromycin. It actively acts against all types of staphylococcus and is used for diseases of the ENT organs.
Amoxicillinrefers to penicillins of wide action and shows high activity against staphylococcal infection. This drug can be successfully used for both prevention and treatment of infectious postoperative complications. Amoxicillin can be combined with a substance that protects it from the destructive enzyme released by microbes in staphylococcal and streptococcal infections.
Furazolidone,unlike the previous ones, actively affects the staphylococcus aureus located in the digestive tract. At the same time this drug actively affects the protozoa and parasites, they can treat the diseases caused by them.
Nifuroxazideselectively affects both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, which include all types of staphylococci (golden, epidermal and others). Recently, studies have been conducted on the ratio of its activity to other types of microorganisms.
Vancomycinis the "gold standard" in the treatment of such an infection and it is the best antibiotic against staphylococcus. He actively acts on all strains, while doing their full eradication. Vancomycin can be administered for all localizations of infection caused by microorganisms of this group.
Ciprofloxacinrefers to antibiotics of systemic action (fluoroquinolones). This antibiotic can be successfully used against staphylococcal infection in all its manifestations and localizations. Also ciprofloxacin in the form of an ointment is indicated for use in ophthalmic practice for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis, blepharitis and keratitis. High efficacy of the antibiotic has been shown as a means for prevention before surgery and treatment of the postoperative period.
Tetracyclineis also considered a highly effective antibiotic in relation to not only Staphylococcus aureus, but also other gram-positive bacteria. Tetracycline is successfully used in both ophthalmic and dental practice. This antibiotic is presented both in tablets and in the form of various ointments for external use.
Lincomycinis an antibacterial drug widely used in the treatment of suppurative postoperative complications (abscesses and phlegmon), both of superficial tissues and internal organs. Especially it is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal osteomyelitis (purulent melting of the bone) and it can be cured of the chronic form of this disease.
Antibacterial agents used in resistant strains
For the treatment of resistant Staphylococcus strains to the penicillin series of antibiotics the following medicines are used: Levofloxacin and Roxithromycin. Levofloxacin belongs to fluoroquinolones and effectively acts in addition to staphylococcus aureus on other microorganisms of any localization. This drug successfully copes with the treatment of staphylococcal pneumonia and even belongs to the group of drugs used in tuberculosis.
It should be noted that the antibiotic levofloxacin is not a highly toxic preparation and can be used for children of up to two weeks. Levofloxacin is successfully used in both the tablet form and the eye solution. This drug can be used in both adults and children.
The antibiotic roxithromycin as well as the previous antibiotic is widely used in resistant strains of golden staphylococcus, but its distinctive feature is that it perfectly copes with the infectious meningitis caused by these microorganisms. Roxithromycin can be used only in adults.
The antimicrobial substances mentioned above should only be used after the determination of the exact agent and strictly according to the prescribing physician. They are also used for a minimum of five days, since in a shorter time it is impossible to achieve complete destruction of Staphylococcus aureus. After antibiotic treatment, all patients are required to re-seed from the nose, pathological or physiological fluids. Without such a procedure, there will not be a 100% guarantee of eradication of the microorganism.
If a patient suffering from a staphylococcal infection is in a medical facility, then sowing and taking blood is done at the height of the fever, so, as soon as the highest active reproduction of microorganisms is manifested in this interval, otherwise one can get a false result.
Dr. Komarovsky will tell you what is Staphylococcus aureus,
Staphylococcus aureus in feces and intestines in infants
Parents are always happy about the birth of a long-awaited baby. But sometimes this event overshadows the medical examination, the results of which indicate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the body of the baby.
As practice shows, the bacteria of this group become infected even for 3-5 days of stay in the maternity ward. That parents are not frightened and do not panic, it is necessary to understand:
- What is Staphylococcus aureus.
- The causes of staphylococcal infection.
- Symptoms of the disease.
- Diagnosis of tests.
- Treatment and prevention of Staphylococcus aureus in infants.
What is Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus is considered to be bacteria, in an active state causing various infectious diseases. Microorganisms have a spherical shape and are collected in a colony in the form of a bunch. The most dangerous type is Staphylococcus aureus, especially for newborns, whose immunity is very weak. The bacterium of this species has a yellowish color, therefore it is called golden.
It is worth saying thatStaphylococcus aureus is found almost everywhere. on furniture, toys, clothes, skin and, sadly, in breast milk. Studies have shown that one in three is the carrier of an infection that does not manifest itself in any way. Favorite habitats: mucous membranes, skin, and intestines.
This does not mean that a child can get sick. But parents better take care of his safety. To protect the baby from getting infected with Staphylococcus aureus, you need to know the reasons.
Infection with golden staphylococcus can occur in the womb as a result of infection of the mother. Subsequently, infection continues through breast milk. Bacteria, in this case, affect the intestines of the infant and cause unpleasant symptoms.
Newborns are at risk:
- Appeared before the deadline.
- The births of which were complex and difficult.
- With a weak immune system.
- Contained with a violation of hygiene.
- Infected mothers breastfed.
- Which are on artificial feeding.
Symptoms of the disease
Manifestations of infection of the intestine with golden staphylococcus are quite visible, reminiscent of dysbacteriosis or intestinal infection. To make sure that the cause is the bacteria of staphylococcus, it is necessary to pass tests and conduct laboratory tests.
The incubation period of development can befrom several hours to four days. It depends on the degree of infection, the age of the child and its immunity.
The symptomatology of infection with staphylococcus is characterized by a frequent stool that has a watery mushy consistency, mucus and foam can be traced in the stool. The baby becomes sluggish, capricious, refrains from feeding, vomiting may occur, and fever rises. constantly disturbing pain in the abdomen.
The presence of Staphylococcus bacteria in the small intestine will indicate the following symptoms:
Diagnosis of tests
To determine the causes of the disease, the laboratory examination takes biomaterials: maternal milk, feces and smears of the child's mucous membranes. In buckposseve is the number of staphylococci. Deviation from the norm indicates the treatment of the patient.
The opinion of doctors is somewhat divergent from the norm: some believe that the indicator should be zero (0 cf / g of feces), others - admitnot more than 10 cfu / g in the biomaterial taken. If a small number of pathogens were found in the analyzes, but there are no manifestations of the disease, then the patient is not hospitalized, but is under the supervision of a doctor. Also prescribed drugs that strengthen the immunity of the newborn.
In case of confirmation of infection of the gastrointestinal tact with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, a course of treatment is prescribed. Sowing the collected analyzes establishes the activity of growth of staphylococcus colonies, and also determines the resistance to a certain type of antibiotics. Adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to most antibiotics complicates the treatment process.
Treatment and prevention of Staphylococcus aureus in infants
At the first alarming symptoms, parents should urgently consult a doctor. Treatment of a young woman suffering from Staphylococcus aureus is carried out permanently under the supervision of a specialist. Treatment at home and especially folk remedies will not lead to success, but will only exacerbate the situation. If the infection is from breast milk, then the therapeutic activities of the mother of the child are carried out in parallel.
To eliminate the disease, the doctor appointsantibiotics of the penicillin group. antiseptic drugs, bacteriophages. To increase the immunity of the baby, I attribute probiotics, a number of vitamins, as well as immunomodulators. Breast milk of mother is also an excellent means for strengthening the baby's protective system.
The consequence of untimely treatment of Staphylococcus aureus gastrointestinal tract may become dysbiosis or enterocolitis. Parents should not despair, because modern medicine and pharmacological drugs successfully treat these ailments.
In order to avoid infecting the baby with golden staphylococcus, it is necessary to adhere to the rules for the prevention of this disease:
- Carefully observe the rules of hygiene and sanitation.
- Do not touch the child with dirty hands.
- Objects of everyday use of the baby are often washed, boiled, ironed.
- Take care of strengthening the immunity of the child: do exercises, often walk in the fresh air.
- Breast milk should be a priority in breastfeeding.
Compliance with prevention, doctor's consultation, timely diagnosis, permanent immune-strengthening measures reduce the risk of developing Staphylococcus aureus in infants.
Sources: http://ktovrach.ru/59-stafilokokkovaya-infekciya.html, http://tvoilegkie.ru/vozbuditeli/antibiotiki-i-stafilokokk-obzor-lekarstv.html, http://ru-babyhealth.ru/zolotistyj-stafilokokk-v-kale-i-kishechnike-u-grudnichka/
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