Than to treat staphylococcal infection in the intestine
The share of cocci flora in the human intestine accounts for 25% of its entire flora. There are four main types of intestinal staphylococcus:
# 8212; epidermal staphylococcus, causes bacterial complications in operations on the heart and its vessels;
# 8212; hemolytic staphylococcus, causative agent of endocarditis, septicemia, infections of the genitourinary system, purulent inflammation of wounds, bones and joints;
# 8212; saprophytic staphylococcus, causative agent of urinary tract infections, septicemia and wound infections;
# 8212; Staphylococcus aureus, causative agent of intestinal infection, toxic infections, bacteremia, septicemia, syndrome toxic shock; this bacterium is a big problem for medical institutions as a causative agent of nosocomial complications and diseases.
The level of exposure and severity of the clinical picture of staphylococci is assigned:
# 8212; The first priority category for blood (pathogens bacteremia), urine (here the main role is allocated saprophytic staphylococcus), lower r
# 8212; 2nd category for upper respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, etc.).
Staphylococci are cocci of spherical form, in the smear of the material are located bunches. The growth limits of this bacterium: 6 ° # 8212; 46 °, the optimum is # 8212; 35 ° to 40 °. They are not sensitive to salt solutions, with a concentration of 5% # 8212; ,% they continue to maintain their livelihoods and grow. Well tolerated drying, the pigment protects the colony from the effects of sunlight up to several hours. At room temperature, on the household items, staphylococci live up to 35 - 50 days. Disinfectants kill bacteria for 15 to 20 minutes. When boiling staphylococcus perish instantly, at a temperature of 70 ° - 80 ° live 20 - 30 minutes.
Clinical manifestations of diseases caused by intestinal staphylococci.
All four types of intestinal staphylococcus in human immunodeficiency can be the cause of purulent-inflammatory processes in him; The causes of 120 nosological forms of diseases are intestinal staphylococci, which affect any tissues of the human organism.
Coagulase-positive variants (this is the ability to coagulate rabbit plasma proteins) of Staphylococcus aureus often causes an acute purulent infection in an organism that, in the absence of proper treatment, can be complicated by bacteremia, septicemia or toxic shock syndrome (read the article "Staphylococcus, but not - OK!").
The big problem for medical institutions is nosocomial infections, the causative agent of which is methicilin-resistant strains coagulopoietic strains of Staphylococcus aureus, having multidrug resistance to many antibiotics, especially from penicillin and cephalosporins.
The toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus can cause severe poisoning.
Staphylococcus sources are patients with pyoinflammatory infections, as well as carriers of this bacterium. Accumulation in the body of the carrier of the golden staphylococcus with the already formed complex of persistent characteristics facilitates their penetration into the internal environment of the host organism. The transition of the pathogen from one ecological niche to another alters the biological properties of the pathogen, it develops the ability to inactivate some of the natural factors anti-infectious protection. So the golden staphylococcus has the ability to inactivate interferons.
These properties allow the causative agent to stay in the internal environment of the human body for a long time and explains the protracted nature of purulent-inflammatory processes in such a patient.
Coagulase-negative golden staphylococci are also representatives of normal intestinal flora and are opportunistic pathogens. They activate their pathogenic effect after a human being has suffered a disease that suppresses immunity, bacteremia, septicemia and purulent lesions of the skin and internal organs occur.
Normally, children under one year of age have no staphylococcus aureus in the staphylococcal flora of the intestine. Any detection of it in the analysis of the feces of a child examined for enteritis with clinical manifestations of regurgitation, abdominal distention, vomiting, coughing mucous or watery stools with a frequency up to 15 times a day, is considered to be an etiological factor of intestinal infection with a fecal-oral mechanism of transmission from the mother, staff of medical institutions and environmental subjects environment.
In children older than one year and adults, the aetiological role of Staphylococcus aureus is confirmed when it is isolated from stool in the number of 1, 00 and above the colonies in 1 gram of stool, the sowing of feces should be made only from stool dilutions (stool analysis on microflora). Normal content in stool of Staphylococcus aureus # 8212; this is 1000 colonies of these bacteria in 1 gram of feces.
Excess growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the intestine of a child or adult leads to dysbacteriosis, in which Symptoms from the intestine (liquid stool or diarrhea), rashes on the skin appear against the background of normal temperature body.
In children under 14 years with dysbacteriosis prevails clinic gastrocolitis - vomiting, abdominal pain, unformed feces, but not watery, tenesmus, possible blood, mucus and constipation, as well as manifestations of the skin in the form of rashes, which are associated with an allergy to some kind of food product.
The causes of this condition are acute intestinal infections, chronic diseases gastrointestinal tract, the same type of nutrition and wide application in occasion of and without an occasion of antibiotics of wide spectrum of action.
Staphylococcal dysbacteriosis of the intestine in adults occurs in patients with acute intestinal diseases, suffering from chronic diseases of the digestive system or diseases that reduce the protective properties organism. Predisposing factors # 8212; this alimentary factor (starvation, deficiency of protein and vitamins in nutrition), constipation, permanent application of laxatives, toxic and allergic action of antibiotics directly on the mucosa intestines.
Staphylococcal dysbacteriosis of the intestine in adults often proceeds according to the type of pseudomembranous enterocolitis, when local intestinal symptoms dominate and general symptoms are absent. Wherein:
# 8212; diarrhea and constipation occur with equal frequency;
# 8212; when diarrhea feces are liquid or crustacean, contains a lot of mucus, the amount of feces is usually small;
# 8212; sometimes there is "diarrhea # 8212; alarm clock "when the patient wakes up early in the morning from urge to defecate;
# 8212; in some patients, food intake causes a urge to defecate (gastrointestinal reflex);
# 8212; pain localized mainly in the lower abdomen, are monotonous, accompanied by bloating and eased after stools or gases.
Prevention of diseases caused by intestinal staphylococcus is associated with the elimination of the causes of their occurrence.
Treatment of these diseases is carried out with antibiotics, taking into account the sensitivity of staphylococci. Apply staphylococcal bacteriophage, as well as agents that increase the immunity of the body # 8212; it is an anti-staphylococcal gamma globulin and a staphylococcal anatoxin.
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Infectious Disease of Staphylococcus Kids
Staphylococcus is the most common childhood disease. In Greek, the meaning of this word means "a handful of grains because under the microscope the congestion of cocci resembles a bunch of grapes.Staphylococcus is not only an infection that has settled in the body, but also the onset of many diseases. This is due to the fact that bacteria and rods of infection significantly reduce the protective forces of the child's body, weaken the immune system.
Infection affects the skin of the baby, the stomach and mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. To date, science knows up to 30 types of microbes of this disease, the symptoms of defeat in many groups are different. Among them exist as very dangerous for life and health, and neutral, quite harmless.
For example, Staphylococcus aureus in children, saphoritic and epidermal can affect the crumb, which is in a weakened state.It is these three types of disease that bear an unquestionable threat to the health and life of the child. Most often about such ailments mothers are heard in maternity hospitals, because infection can occur during the adaptation of the infant to the environment, in the first days of life through the skin, during feeding (in breast milk or in the nose) or through a cut cord (in the intestine, and then in the stool) baby)
Since this disease belongs to the "contact" group, the kid most often becomes infected when he comes in contact with an already sick person. The first and the main thing that parents must take when they see signs of staphylococcus in a child is to immediately go to the clinic. Symptoms of infection that should definitely alert adults:
- Catarrhal diseases and SARS. Symptoms - intestinal disorders, pain in the kitten, fever;
- Cough and runny nose, swelling of the eyelids, inflammation in the nose, conjunctivitis;
- Symptoms in infants - skin lesions in the form of "scattered" red pimples;
- In the late advanced stage of the disease, symptoms such as headaches, pneumonia, sepsis.
Staphylococcus aureus in children, revealed in the nose, in the feces and on the genitals is manifested most often in infants, by infection in the mother's milk. In older children, the symptoms are marked by the defeat of the skin of the hands, in the later stages - such signs as furuncles and ulcers, lesions of internal organs, chronic pain in the intestine. Late diagnosis and misdiagnosed treatment lead to staphylococcus in the intestines of the child, whose treatment is very difficult.
Symptoms of the disease in children in the early stages are expressed exclusively in nausea, vomiting and diarrhea (liquefied feces) with general lethargy and a slight increase in temperature.
Causes of infection in the body
Staphylococcus aureus in a child is the most common infection that occurs in infants from infancy. The conducted studies revealed the main causes and symptoms of the appearance of this disease in toddlers:
- The use of strong antibiotics in the treatment of infants.An already weakened organism undergoes so-called "immune stress as a result of which the medicines simply stop functioning and the infection easily affects the weakened child. appearing on the skin, in the nose, and then in the intestine;
- The cause of infection with Staphylococcus aureus in children in the nose or intestines, can serve as his long stay in the hospital. Most often this applies to weakened or premature babies in the pressure chamber or connected to the device of artificial ventilation of lungs and deprived immunoglobulins, contained in breast milk;
- Tubules, catheters and implants, if necessary, can also cause infection - staphylococcus in the throat of a child;
- Congenital diabetes, weakened immune system;
- Postponed chicken pox and influenza at an early age;
- Infection from sick parents (staphylococcus in breast milk of mother).
Pediatricians in maternity homes and children's polyclinics have several standard definitions of the danger of infection. If the disease is found in the feces of a child and in the breast milk of his mother, and the child feels normally, then, most often, there is no cause for concern, and the disease is left untreated. In this case, the disease is classified as the fourth form and the baby is prescribed general immunodeficiency drugs and preventive examinations. Bacteria and sticks in milk and feces, as a rule, quickly disappear and treatment is thus of a supporting nature.
There are cases when the disease in the nose or even in the intestines, passes at all without any obvious signs of infection, and about that the child is sick, they learn only by finding a wand in the feces of a child, a smear in the nose, or when passing a general blood test .
The final diagnosis of the disease requires careful examination and determination of the stage of the disease, the classification of the virus and the readiness of the child's organism to fight infection. Treatment of the disease in children causes some difficulties, because when the disease develops, the bacterium forms such an unusual and uncomfortable enzyme in the intestine, like penicillinase. It is he who does not allow you to fight the disease with the help of the usual antibiotics, developing resistance to the body.
As soon as the first signs of Staphylococcus aureus in the form of a rash on the skin or in the nose appeared in the infant, the doctor prescribes treatment - prescribes a scheme for taking antibacterial drugs, vitamin supplements and medicines that increase protective properties.If the infant is born with an infection (the stick is found in breast milk), it is left in the hospital where it is treated while in a sterile chamber under the supervision of specialists. In this case, crumbs are not weaned from the mother's breast, because this food is the only natural remedy for strengthening immunity. The infection found in the intestine requires treatment in the hospital.
If staphylococcus in the throat and nose of a child is prescribed treatment by irrigation with bacterial preparations, older children by rinsing and washing the nasopharynx with oily, alcoholic and herbal infusion. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose in a child is problematic, since it is on the mucous membranes that this virus produces stable pathogenic microorganisms. In this case, the doctor's approach may be individual, and depending on the extent of the lesion, a certain antibiotic in the form of ointments can be administered to the baby. If the general condition of the baby is normal, and it is active, then staphylococcus aureus in children in the nasal sinuses is treated with sulfanilamide preparations.
And, of course, the first thing that every doctor will pay your attention to is the prevention of the disease. It is much harder to cure the infection than to prevent it. Therefore, often pay attention to hygiene, cleanliness of the baby's hands and be sure to support the immune system, saturating it with the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Doctor Komarovsky advises
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Staphylococcus in newborns
Medicine defines the concept of staphylococcus as one of the types of bacteria. Translation of it from the ancient Greek is the word combination of grape grape. When viewed under a microscope, the bacterium looks like a bunch of these berries. Staphylococcus is Gram-positive because it does not discolour in laboratory tests, but retains its golden color. In nature, bacteria are found in soil or in air. The risk factors for the appearance of a pathogenic agent in newborns are:
- problems in childbirth;
- incorrect process of care for newborns;
- pathology during pregnancy;
- premature birth.
Medical statistics indicate a large number of cases of the appearance of staphylococcus in the hospital. In this institution, all people due to diseases weakened immunity. This situation opens the gate for any infection, including staphylococcal infection. Another cause of infection may be carriers of bacteria from among medical staff or newborn patients. They themselves may not be aware of their status, but at the same time have an infection in one form or another. Staphylococcus in the baby also causes various diseases. Depending on them, it is classified:
- Hemolytic. It affects the respiratory tract, therefore it is the cause of tonsillitis or tonsillitis.
- Saprophytic. Causes cystitis or urethritis.
- Golden. More dangerous for newborns. It causes purulent inflammation of all organs and tissues.
How is Staphylococcus aureus
Occurs in the body of the infants Staphylococcus immediately after birth. The colonization of the baby's body with this and other bacteria is considered a normal process of adaptation to the environment. After giving birth, the baby is completely sterile, but already during the first minute of life, his stomach, intestine, nasopharynx, skin and all other organs are exposed to the most diverse microorganisms. Infection often occurs through the mother's milk or a crack on the nipples.
Where does the hospital get staphylococcus aureus? Any hospital periodically carries out disinfection. In this procedure all bacteria die: pathogenic and useful. The liberated space and occupies staphylococcus aureus. He is carried in the hospital by the same medical personnel. Staphylococcus aureus in a child is considered a frequent phenomenon, therefore in maternity hospitals there are even outbreaks of infections caused by this bacterium.
Symptoms of Staphylococcal Infection
Sources: http://karapuzzik.com/medicina/kishechnyiy-stafilokokk, http://onethree.ru/zdorovye/stafilokokk-u-detej, http://sovets24.ru/719-stafilokokk-u-novorozhdennykh.html
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