Causes and symptoms of nodal melanoma
Nodal melanoma is an oncological disease that develops fairly quickly. This form of neoplasm is characterized by a deep penetration into the tissue. Because of this, treatment is rather difficult. And for what reasons there is a nodal melanoma? How is it diagnosed and treated?.
- 1Why does
- 3Treatment and prognosis
Nodal melanoma, like its usual form, can appear in anyone. No doctor can tell why the disease appeared. Clear causes of such formations on the skin specialists have not revealed. There are only some factors, each of which or all of them together and can lead to the appearance of such a form of oncology.
Melanoma nodal, as well as its usual form, can appear due to the following:
- first of all it is worth mentioning the long-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation;
- nodal melanoma can also occur due to the injury;
- Also, long-term exposure to certain toxic substances may result in the disease;
- another reason is heredity. Disease can be transmitted from parents to children;
- The appearance of a malignant neoplasm on the skin can also contribute to large doses of radiation, including electromagnetic radiation.
Melanoma in any form can arise due to deterioration of the body's immune defense. This often happens in the period of hormonal failures, for example, in women during childbearing.
Melanoma of the skin is an oncological disease. It has been known for a long time and doctors have learned to successfully treat it. The nodal form of this ailment is less common, but it has less chance of a full recovery. Therefore, its treatment should be started immediately. But in order to recognize what kind of disease the patient has, you need to know her symptoms.
Nodal melanoma has the following symptoms:
- First of all, it is worth paying attention to the color of education. Most often, with the initial development of the disease, the nevus begins to take a dark color, down to black.
- As the disease develops, the tumor grows. This process goes both in width and in length.
- Nodal melanoma is characterized by clear boundaries of education. In this case, it has a round or oval shape.
- Also pay attention to the surface. There are no hair on it, it becomes smooth. Often there is cornification or densification of the tissue. But as the disease develops, ulcers can appear on the surface, and it bleeds easily.
- Neoplasms or screenings appear around the neoplasm.
The development of the disease occurs fairly quickly. As a rule, from the initial stage to the full development of the node passes from six months to one and a half years. Initially, the patient does not feel discomfort or other manifestations. As the tumor develops, itching, burning and pain may occur.
Treatment and prognosis.
If the skin is affected by nodal melanoma, surgical intervention is required. Without surgery and physical removal of the neoplasm, one can not get rid of the disease.
In this case, doctors perform the following procedures:
- surgical excision of nodular melanoma is done. At the same time, the surrounding tissue is also removed. The excision area can be removed from the edge of the formation by -2 centimeters;
- The excised tumor is transferred to the laboratory for examination. After confirming the diagnosis, healthy tissues, removed together with the formation, are also examined;
- if the second study found cancer cells, then another operation is performed. In this case, more tissue surrounding the melanoma is removed.
After surgical removal of the tumor, the patient should be under the supervision of doctors. In the first year he needs to undergo a monthly examination. Further, the frequency of a doctor's visit is reduced to one half-year. Such examinations are necessary in order to notice a possible relapse in time.
In some cases, education is considered inoperable. In such a situation, they resort to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Also, such techniques in combination with immunotherapy and other methods are resorted to with the appearance of minor metastases.
For patients, the issue of the prognosis of getting rid of the disease is very important. Much depends on the size of the tumor. If the melanoma is less than a millimeter in thickness, then the prognosis for recovery is favorable. At a tumor size up to, mm, the chances of complete disposal are significantly reduced. And if the melanoma is even thicker, then the forecast changes to unfavorable.