What is chloasma, what does it come from and how to treat it?

Chloasma what is it? This is the name for focal hyperpigmentation, which refers to melasma, which most often appears on the skin of the face. Its occurrence is associated with an excess of melanin in a specific area of ​​the skin. In almost 90% of cases, such a violation of pigmentation occurs in women, especially during pregnancy. For the treatment of pathology, cosmetology methods are prescribed that can reduce the process of skin pigmentation.

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Content

  • 1Causes of appearance
  • 2Varieties of pathology
  • 3Symptoms
  • 4Diagnostics
  • 5Treatment and prevention

Causes of appearance

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Answering the question: "Chloasma - what it is doctors note that this name has focal pigmentation, which can occur on any part of the body, but most often it appears on the face. The cause of pathology is the excessive synthesis of melanin.

More often than not, pregnant women and women who have abnormalities in the work of the ovaries face chloasma. The pigmented spot has an irregular shape and is characterized by the possibility of recurrence.

The main reasons for its appearance include:

  • frequent contact with ultraviolet;
  • abuse of sunburn or solarium;
  • hormonal changes in the body (the period of puberty, pregnancy, etc.);
  • abnormalities in ovarian function;
  • use of hormonal contraceptives;
  • some gynecological pathologies;
  • deficiency in the body of certain vitamins or trace elements;
  • inflammatory processes in the urinary tract;
  • diseases of the liver and digestive organs;
  • metabolic disease;
  • genetic predisposition.

To the risk factors that contribute to the development of pathology, doctors include:

  1. Approximately half of the patients develop chloroform due to excess amount of ultraviolet light, which has fallen on the skin of the body.
  2. Approximately every third case of hyperpigmentation is associated with a violation of the human hormonal background.
  3. 1 out of 4 patients with this diagnosis are pregnant women. Often after the birth, the pathology passes on its own without special treatment.
The hue of chloasma on the face or other part of the body depends on the type and amount of melanin produced, in which it is produced. In patients whose close relatives have already experienced this disease, an excess of ultraviolet radiation can trigger the development of chloasma.

Varieties of pathology

Chlazmoy doctors called hyperpigmented area on the face or body. Such pigmented spots have clearly defined outlines, capable of taking the wrong shape. This spot is always inside the epidermis, never rising above its surface. Its color can vary from pale brown to brown and depends on the amount of melanin produced in the skin. There can be one such spot, and there can be a lot of them. Nearby spots can merge into one large spot.

It is usually diagnosed with chloasma on the face, which in turn is divided into:

  1. Centrofacial - occurs on the forehead, nose, or around the lips.
  2. Molar - affects the wings of the nose and cheeks.
  3. Mandibular - covers the surface of the lower jaw.

Before assigning the appropriate treatment for chloasma, it is important to distinguish it from other similar skin pathologies (pellagra, lentigo, etc.). Diagnosing chloasma, knowing what it is, the doctor will be able to recommend further treatment. Such spots do not cause a person discomfort, they do not flake and do not itch.

Chloasma of pregnant women often appears in the form of a strip on the abdomen, which is associated with hormonal changes in the female body, but after the birth of the baby, it disappears on its own. This kind of pathology is called passing.

A persistent type is also distinguished - pigmentation does not completely disappear, but as a result of treatment it becomes much less.

Hyperpigmentation, except for a person, can be detected:

  • on the back and other parts of the trunk;
  • in the area of ​​the collar zone;
  • in the area of ​​the nipples;
  • on the inner surface of the thigh.

Based on the histological type, chloasma are:

  1. Epidermal - have a high level of melanin in the upper layers of the skin. If the treatment is selected correctly, the pigmentation disappears.
  2. Dermal - penetrate deep layers of the skin. Completely get rid of this pathology is impossible. Treatment allows only to lighten the damaged area.
  3. Mixed - the pigment melanin is located simultaneously in different layers of the skin.

With the timely start of treatment, it is possible to reduce the manifestation of chloasma.

Symptoms

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Chloasma always appears in open areas and does not cause any symptoms. If we compare this pathology with other skin diseases, it can be noted that they are distinguished by the sharpness of the borders, the absence of itching or flaking. The only complaint of patients is the aesthetic and psychological discomfort that delivers such blemishes.

The sizes of pigmented spots can be different - from several millimeters in diameter to 15 centimeters. Basically, they appear on the face skin and can completely cover the cheeks, lips, eyelids. Their shape and color are always monotonous.

Separately, such pigment spots as perioral chlorosis or perioral dermatitis are isolated. Their characteristic feature is pigmentation on the lips and in the mouth. Also, spots can spread to the nasolabial triangle and chin.

Sometimes on the face there is a pigmentary line in width in 1 sm (dichromnia) which goes from a forehead through a cheek to a neck and specifies problems in work of a central nervous system:

  • a brain tumor;
  • meningoencephalitis;
  • Parkinson's disease.

In Asian countries, "bronze chloasma" occurs, and it occurs not only among the local population, but also living in these regions of Europeans. But if they return home, there is a decrease in the manifestation of pigmentation or its complete disappearance. The name of the pathology is associated with a special pigmentation color.

Diagnostics

Knowing what chloasma is, the doctor will conduct a detailed interview of the patient to confirm the diagnosis and the appointment of the therapy, finding out when and under what circumstances the pigmentation occurred.

Also, visual inspection of the pigmented spot is necessary. Then the patient will be sent for testing. It is important to exclude the congenital pigmentation factor and inflammatory process.

For this it is worth making:

  • laboratory blood test;
  • a blood test for determining the level of sex hormones;
  • analysis for the level of bilirubin in the blood;
  • skiascopy;
  • spectrophotometric intracutaneous study;
  • Ultrasound of the peritoneum and organs that are responsible for the synthesis of hormones;
  • gastroscopy;
  • Studies that can identify infections and helminths in the body;
  • analysis on the level of hormones that produce the thyroid gland;
  • dermatoscopy;
  • analysis for infections that are sexually transmitted;
  • research on dysbiosis;
  • hepatic assays;
  • women who take oral contraceptives should consult a gynecologist regarding their replacement with another contraceptive.

It is also important to undergo a test that will exclude the presence of such pathologies in the patient:

  • Mongolian spot;
  • professional melanolulmia;
  • pigment nevus (giant or borderline);
  • secondary hyperpigmentation.

Only after confirming the diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe to the patient the necessary treatment for chloasma, which will depend on the causes of its appearance and other factors.

Treatment and prevention

For the treatment of the disease, the patient needs complex treatment, which he will be assigned:
  • dermatologists;
  • cosmetologist;
  • endocrinologist.

When detecting chloasma treatment is appointed in a complex:

  1. For the entire period of treatment, it is important for the patient to avoid being exposed to direct sunlight.
  2. Refuse or minimize the use of cosmetics, which includes ultraviolet filters.
  3. To suppress the production of melanin, mesotherapy is used. In addition to them cosmetic means with bleaching action are appointed.
  4. To destroy the pigment, laser irradiation and selective photothermolysis are carried out.
  5. Carrying out procedures such as cryotherapy, ANA-peeling, mesotherapy, biorevitalization and dermabrasion.

In addition, the patient will be prescribed medications:

  • vitamin and mineral complexes;
  • hormonal contraceptives.

Affected area should be treated:

  • to peel with preparations based on lactic or citric acid;
  • use bleaching creams or ointments;
  • use a cream with exfoliating effect.

To reduce or slow down the synthesis process in the epidermis of melanin, use:

  • derivatives of ascorbic acid;
  • tyrosinase inhibitors;
  • inhibitors of melanocytes.
To prevent the occurrence of chloasma, physicians are advised not to visit the solarium and limit the time spent in the open sun. On sunny days, going out, you should treat the skin with sunscreen creams. And in the hot season choose free clothes that will not rub the skin of the body. It is also necessary to avoid skin contact with any chemicals that can erode the epidermis.
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