Facilitates the cleavage of fats increases peristalsis of the intestine
splitting fats in the body as occur?
Maxim Kub Master( 1151) 7 years ago
Fat metabolism in the human body
Fat metabolism in the human body consists of three steps
1. Digestion and absorption of fat in the stomach and intestines
2. Intermediate fat metabolism in the body
fats and their metabolic products from the body.
Fats are part of a large group of organic compounds - lipids, so the concept of fat metabolism and lipid metabolism are synonymous.
Approximately 70 grams of animal and vegetable fats enter the body of an adult. Fat splitting does not occur in the oral cavity, as saliva does not contain enzymes for splitting fats. Partial splitting of fats into components( glycerin, fatty acids) begins in the stomach, but this process goes slowly for what reasons:
in the gastric juice of an adult person the enzyme activity for splitting fats( lipase) is very low
acid-base balance in the stomach is not optimalFor the action of this enzyme
in the stomach, there are no con
Therefore, in an adult, most of the fat passes through the stomach without significant changes.
Unlike adults in children, the breakdown of fat in the stomach is much more active.
The main part of edible fats is broken down in the upper part of the small intestine, under the action of pancreatic juice.
Successful splitting of fats is possible if they first break up into small droplets. It occurs under the action of bile acids entering the duodenum with bile. As a result of emulsification, the surface of fats increases dramatically, which facilitates their interaction with lipase.
Absorption of fats and other lipids occurs in the small intestine. Fat-soluble acids( A, D, E, K) get into the body along with the products of the breakdown of fats.
Synthesis of specific fats for this organism occurs in the cells of the intestinal wall. Later, the newly created fats enter the lymphatic system, and then into the blood. The maximum fat content in the blood plasma occurs between 4 and 6 hours after ingestion of fatty foods. After 10 - 12 hours the fat concentration returns to normal.
Liver takes an active part in the fat metabolism. In the liver, part of the newly formed fat is oxidized to form the energy necessary for the vital activity of the body. Another part of the fat is converted into a convenient form for transportation, and enter the blood. Thus, from 25 to 50 grams of fat is transferred per day. Fats that the body does not use immediately, with blood flow into the fat cells, where they are stored in reserve. These compounds can be used in fasting, physical exertion, and so on. Fats are an important source of energy for our body. With short-term and sudden loads, glycogen energy is first used, which is located in the muscles. If the load on the body does not stop, then the breakdown of fat begins.
From here it is necessary to make a conclusion, if you want to get rid of extra pounds with the help of physical exertion, it is necessary that these loads are sufficiently long for at least 30 - 40 minutes.
Fat metabolism is very closely related to carbohydrate metabolism. With an excess of carbohydrates in the body, the metabolism of fats slows down, and the work goes only in the direction of the synthesis of new fats and putting them aside. With a lack of carbohydrates in food, on the contrary, the splitting of fats from the fat reserves is activated. From this we can conclude that nutrition for weight loss should limit( within reasonable limits) not only fat, but also carbohydrates.
Most of the fats that we eat with food are used by our body or remain in reserve. In normal condition, only 5% of fat is excreted from our body, this is done with the help of sebaceous and sweat glands.
Elena Lisova Master( 1763) 7 years ago
Caution! Diarrhea syndromeABC for the first
Algorithm recommendations of the first
Questions for diarrhea need to ask the buyer a lot. But you can't escape this if you want to find the right complex.
1. Who has diarrhea in a child, an adult?
If a child recommends urgently calling a doctor( diarrhea is especially dangerous in children under 2 years of age).To the doctor: start rehydron and give a sorbent.
2. What is the reason for diarrhea?(Consumption of stale or unwashed products? Is there any chronic disease? Have you taken any drugs?)
3. What else besides diarrhea bothers you?
1).If the temperature, vomiting is recommended to call a doctor, wash the stomach with water or 0.5% solution of baking soda( only water should not be warm - it will quickly suck, and there will be no sense).plus rehydron and sorbent.
2).If the buyer categorically does not want to contact the doctor - a non-prescription antibacterial drug( Nifuroxazide), rehydron, sorbent.
4. Is there pus, blood, mucus in the stool?
If there is - to the doctor. Especially if the blood in the stool.
5. If the stool is a gruel, there are no pathological impurities, the state of health is not disturbed - a motility inhibitor, probiotic.
6. If it is clear that diarrhea is associated with overeating: an enzyme, a sorbent( sorb gases), a motility inhibitor.
7. If it is clear that diarrhea is associated with stress - an inhibitor of motility.
If you have symptoms of an intestinal infection, advise the buyer to see a doctor if the diarrhea lasts more than 3 days.
In the meantime, make recommendations on the nutrition and drinking regime( drink 2-3 liters of fluid per day: rehydron, water, rice water), nutrition - see above.
If you recommend a sorbent, then tell the buyer that between his intake and intake of food and other preparations, an interval of 1-1.5 hours should be done.
Fuh.-))) That's all I wanted to say to you today.
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-05-28 at 23:43
Marina, do you think: when taking antibiotics, one should take pro-and prebiotics in order to avoid diarrhea or not? This week we had 2 different medical doctors with their antibiotic pharmacists and I asked them this question. They( individually) said that antibiotics do not violate the intestinal microflora and, accordingly, no additional probiotics should be taken. I was very surprised. Before that, they always said that an additional probiotic supplement is needed for the antibiotic. Indeed, then people really treat diarrhea. Perhaps not all, of course.
-05-29 at 05:36
Raisa, thanks for asking! I think that is necessary. Whatever the representatives of the farm say.companies, antibiotics destroy not only harmful microorganisms, but also useful. And if they claim the opposite, ask for evidence( clinical studies).
But only I would recommend pre- and probiotics AFTER a course of antibiotics( if we are not talking about an intestinal infection), and probiotics are PARALLELED with an antibiotic, if we are talking about infectious diarrhea, so that the beneficial bacteria help to quickly cope with intestinal problems. My opinion is that in the latter case Probiotics are needed, that is, living bacteria that work faster than Prebiotics.
-05-29 at 09:21
-10-08 at 00:29
Good day, Marina. I excitedly read all your articles, I really like them. But. Let me disagree this time if the buyer categorically does not want to go to the doctor - an antibacterial drug, rehydron, sorbent. Antibacterial is what? Nitrofuran, antibiotic, Biseptol? I would have all antimicrobial drugs CATEGORICAL.issued in a pharmacy only by prescription. I want to shout the guard already on how our patients eat antibiotics where they need and where they don’t need. Sensitivity decreases dramatically, a bunch of complications. I remember, at the training on tuberculosis, an assistant professor, told us about her patients with tears in her eyes: Do not prescribe fluoroquinolones( especially levofloxacin) without strict indications, I cannot look at the torment of tuberculosis patients with multi-resistant forms. You have so many drugs, leave us fluoroquinolones. I consider the advice: sorbent, regidron, diet( banana, rice, baked apple, yesterday's bread - for starters) - the most correct. Rinse the stomach? Controversial. But, I think the restaurant method( 2 fingers in the mouth) is possible. And that's all. And run to the doctor. I saw in my practice diarrhea with subsequent diagnoses: appendicitis, botulism, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, etc. If a little abruptly - sorry, it was painful. Sincerely.
-10-08 at 07:24
Liver # 8212;the largest of the human internal organs, its weight is usually 2-4% of body weight. The liver is located on the right side in the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. She has a gallbladder immersed in the duodenum with a bile duct. The liver consists of hepatocyte cells collected in lobes with a diameter of 0.5-2 mm. The skeleton that holds hepatocytes together is formed by connective tissue, and the whole organ is also surrounded by its layer. The liver is abundantly penetrated with lymphatic vessels and nerves. Arterial blood supplies the cells of the liver with oxygen supplied to it by the hepatic artery. Another channel of blood flow to the liver is # 8212;This is the portal vein into which venous blood, rich in nutrients and formed in the intestine, enters from the blood circulation system of the intestine. Both the hepatic artery and the portal vein in the liver branch out to form their own networks of capillaries. The branching of the portal vein is called the portal system of the liver. Both networks of capillaries are collected in one vein, which flows into the inferior vena cava.
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The structure of the pancreas
What does the liver perform?
It is referred to as digestive glands because hepatocytes produce bile. It is formed continuously and accumulates in the gallbladder. The flow of bile into the duodenum begins in 5-10 minutes.after eating and lasts 6-8 hours. Bile is made up of water, mineral salts, mucus, lipids, bile acids, and bile pigments, giving it yellow-green color. It enhances intestinal motility, contributes to the secretion of juice from the pancreas, increases the activity of the digestive enzymes of the intestine, facilitates the breakdown of fats, grinding their large drops.
Segmental structure of the liver
Next liver function # 8212;barrier .The fact is that not all substances entering the blood through the capillaries of the intestine are useful. Once in the hepatic hepatic gates, the harmful substances are usually rendered harmless, and their cleavage products are excreted with the bile into the intestine. The liver also breaks down the decay products of destroyed red blood cells, forming bile pigments.
The liver is randomly called the “ metabolic boiler of the body ”.Hepatocytes get most of the nutrients entering the portal system. They are involved in the metabolism, forming substances necessary for the whole human body. Thus, in hepatocytes, glucose is converted into glycogen storage carbohydrate, synthesized by most blood proteins, etc. Only a small proportion of the beneficial substances of the venous blood of the portal system overcomes the liver unchanged.
The liver is involved in blood formation by accumulating iron, which is used to synthesize hemoglobin. The liver is one of the blood stores: it can contain up to 60% of its total volume in the body.
This gland is located behind the stomach. The mass of the pancreas is about 110 g. It is a mixed secretion gland because it contains two types of cells: some produce components of the digestive juice, others # 8212;hormones. The digestive juice is collected in small ducts, merging into one large strait. It opens into the duodenum. The development of digestive juice by the pancreas begins a few minutes after eating and, depending on its composition, lasts 6-14 hours. During the day, a person produces almost 1.5-2.0 liters of pancreatic juice.
The main components of pancreatic juice are various enzymes and bicarbonate ions .The enzymes of this secret are so diverse that under their influence the molecules of many nutrients are broken down: proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Bicarbonate ions neutralize in the intestine hydrochloric acid, which enters it from the stomach as part of chyme. As a result, the digestive juice in the intestine becomes slightly alkaline. It is in this environment that pancreatic enzymes can work.
Both the liver and pancreas. reacts strongly to the effects of alcohol and harmful substances entering the body during smoking. Under their influence, the proper functions of the cells are inhibited. The consequence can be the degeneration of liver cells and pancreas, the formation of malignant tumors in them.
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Sources: http: //otvet.mail.ru/question/ 29054689, http: //nikafarm.ru/ ostorozhno-sindrom-diarei-azbuka-dlya-pervostolnika, http: //bagazhznaniy.ru/obrazovanie/ pechen-i-podzheludochnaya-zheleza
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