What are neutrophils in the blood test

Neutrophils in the blood - this is the most common group of white blood cells, whose main function is the destruction of disease and foreign cells in the body.

ContentsThis is what enables cells to absorb and recycle foreign microorganisms and viruses. After the neutrophil absorbs and splits the bacterium, this cell becomes incapacitated and dies.

Neutrophils are produced in the red bone marrow, move around peripheral blood for some time, and most of the “life” is found in the tissues of various organs. Depending on the presence of the virus in the body, neutrophils may exist for several hours or several days.

Neutrophils in a blood test are counted as part of the leukocyte formula. Depending on the stage of maturation, neutrophils are divided into 6 species. The most senior neutrophil cells - stab and segmented cells are considered mature, because they perform all the basic functions of the immune system. Usually they are enough to defeat the disease, but in some cases, young cells( myelobl

asts, promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes) can join in the fight.

Band-gated neutrophils are not so much in the calculation of the total number of neutrophils( about 1-5%), whereas the majority are segmented( 40-70%).

Read more in the following articles:

  • Band neutrophils
  • Segmental neutrophils

A healthy person should not have immature neutrophils in their blood, since they are all in the bone marrow until they mature. As mentioned above, if they hit the blood, it means that some serious disease is raging in the body. Therefore, having found myelocytes in the blood, what does this mean, ask your doctor. He may prescribe a further examination.

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Neutrophil Norm

Distinguish absolute neutrophil index, which is measured in the number of cells per liter of blood and relative, which takes into account what percentage of leukocytes in the blood take in blood.

The rate of neutrophils in the blood of women and men is the same and is 40-65% or 1.8-6.5 * 109 / l. However, in children this indicator may vary depending on age:

  • Newborns - 50-80%
  • Up to 1 month - 20-60%
  • By 1 year - 30-60%
  • By 5 years - 35-60%
  • 12 years -40-60%
  • Over 12 years - 45-65%

The rate of neutrophils in women during pregnancy does not differ from that for adults. However, in some cases it is possible that neutrophils are elevated during pregnancy in the blood within the normal range, so that the limit can be extended to 40-78%.

For diagnosis, not so much the number of certain types of neutrophils, as their ratio, is of great importance.

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Neutrophils increased

One of the deviations is an increase in the level of neutrophils compared with the norm. This condition is called neutrophilia or neutrophilic leukocytosis. The reason for this may be:

  • Launched bacterial infections( with purulent inflammations);

For example, abscesses, ENT infections, tonsillitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cholera, sepsis, otitis media, etc.

  • Necrosis processes;

Heart attacks, strokes, burns of a large area of ​​the body, gangrene.

  • Vaccination;
  • Intoxication, adversely affecting the bone marrow;

Lead or Alcohol.

  • Intoxication without penetration of bacteria;

Canned food toxins, in which the bacteria are already dead.

  • Malignant tumor;
  • Postponed Disease;

Neutrophils are also elevated in an adult due to a cured infection, when the level of protective cells has not yet returned to normal.

  • Pregnancy;

In some cases, it is considered normal that neutrophils are elevated during pregnancy. At the same time, the number of stab-and segmented cells grows.

Elevated neutrophils in the blood of a child can be associated with cutting teeth and weak immunity. But this version should be discussed with the doctor and compared with other blood tests and examinations.

Elevated neutrophils in the blood make it possible to judge the extent of the disease, the adequacy of the immune response and the correctness of the treatment chosen. But at the same time, an increase in the number of neutrophils is not necessarily associated with abnormalities in the body, it can be a simple physical reaction to stress, dense food intake, exercise.

If neutrophils are elevated in the blood, and all other blood test results are in order, this may fall within the normal range.

Along with an increase in neutrophils, toxic neutrophil granularity can be observed. It manifests itself when the cell does not have enough time for maturation in the bone marrow, most often due to an infection developing in the body. The body seeks to reproduce as many protective cells as possible, and then the morphological structure of the cell is different from normal. Toxic granularity can be normal during pregnancy or the treatment of neutropenia.

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Neutrophil decline

Neutropenia or decrease in the level of neutrophils in the blood is observed during:

  1. Viral diseases;
  2. Inflammation( especially common);
  3. Medication;
  4. Receiving a high dose of radiation( sometimes as a result of radiation therapy);
  5. Anemia;
  6. Mass deficiency;
  7. Leukemia;
  8. Deficiency of some vitamins and trace elements( B12, folic acid);

Sometimes it happens that the neutrophils in the blood are lowered, and the person feels fine and all other blood parameters are in order. Most likely this means that such a level of neutrophils is normal for him. This is typical for 20-30% of the inhabitants of the Russian Federation.

Low neutrophils in a child’s blood are usually associated with taking certain medications.

Despite the fact that it is important to be able to independently consider and analyze the results of medical research and tests, including a blood test, no one will do it better for you than your doctor. Therefore, if you have any questions or misunderstandings, do not hesitate to contact the medical institution and clarify the state of health of yourself or your loved ones.

God bless you!