How leukocyte formula is decrypted

Leukocyte formula is an indicator of a general blood test, which characterizes the percentage ratio of leukocytes of various types and varying degrees of maturity. All leukocytes have a protective function, that is, they play the role of immunity, according to a narrower “specialization” leukocytes are divided into several groups.

Table of contents:
  • Explanation of leukocyte formula
  • Shift of leukocyte formula
  • Leukocyte formula of blood in children - decoding of indicators
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Explanation of leukocyte formula

  • Neutrophil;

They take part in tissue healing processes, secrete bactericidal substances, protect the body from disease-causing agents by phagocytosis( absorption and destruction) and chemotaxis( targeted movement to microorganisms).

Neutrophils are the most common leukocytes in the blood, they are divided into segmented nuclei, which are considered mature( 45-70%) and stab-core, immature( 1-6%).

  • Lymphocytes;

The second largest leukocyte c

ells. Complete blood count with a leukocyte formula normally shows 20-40% of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are formed in the bone marrow or in the lymph nodes, and are responsible for fighting infections, viruses and oncological formations. Unlike other cells, lymphocytes are able to destroy their own leukocytes, infected or mutated.

Related articles:

  • Causes of elevated lymphocytes in the blood
  • Reduced lymphocytes leading to the disease - lymphopenia
  • Monocytes;

These are the largest of all leukocyte cells. They occupy about 10% of the total, but the "working capacity" of monocytes is especially great. For example, a neutrophil can absorb up to 30 microbes, while a monocyte can destroy up to a hundred!

Monocytes are involved in the processes of immunity, metabolism, blood formation, etc.

For the reasons for increasing monocytes, see http: // analizyi-krovi / leykotsitarnaya-formula / povyishenny-monotsityi-v-krovi.html

  • Eosinophils;

Another cell type reflected in the leukocyte blood count. Their level may vary with inflammation, oncology, allergic reactions and parasitic reactions. Eosinophils normally contain 0-5% of all leukocytes, most of which are concentrated in tissues that have contact with the environment: in the lungs, skin, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract.

The main factor affecting the increase in eosinophils is an allergy.

  • Basophils;

This type of leukocytes is the least in the blood; in the leukocyte formula, the rate of basophils does not exceed 0.5%.Basophils support the growth of new cells, the movement of blood through the vessels, help the movement of other white blood cells through the tissues.

Why the basophils are elevated, read the link http: // they are engaged in the main protective activity.

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Leukocyte shift

In addition to the listed species, leukocytes are divided according to the degree of maturity into young and mature. Depending on which cells predominate in the selected blood volume, it is concluded whether there has been a shift in the leukocyte formula.

The appearance of an excess of immature and juvenile blood forms( especially neutrophils) indicates a probable course of a serious illness in the body. This can be explained by the fact that those cells that have already been developed and have reached mature age can cope with the mild form of a non-dangerous virus. Meanwhile, the body begins to produce more and more leukocytes so that, when ripe, they can help fight the infection. But if the disease is too rapidly attacking the body, all immature and young blood cells also enter into the fight for immunity. As a consequence, there is a shift to the left of the leukocyte formula.

To understand why the shifts in the formula are marked as "left" and "right", it is convenient to present a scheme that corresponds to the life cycle of leukocytes:

Immature( stab) and young cells - Healthy mature cells - Segmental hypersegmented cells.

The shift of the leukocyte formula to the left is the predominance of band and young bodies in the blood volume.

Shift of the leukoformuly to the right indicates that the stab cells are smaller than those of a normal organism, and instead of them the number of segmented nuclear bodies with large nuclei has increased.

A normal result is when the ratio of stab and segmented neutrophils is within the normal range.

Leukocyte formula depends on factors that do not depend on the presence of any diseases:

  • Age;
  • Time of day;
  • Paul;
  • Body Structure( weight);
  • Pregnancy and lactation.

If an adult person has deciphering blood leukoformula more or less understandable, since normal values ​​are established for all and vary slightly, then the situation with the blood analysis of children is a bit more complicated. Below we give the rate of leukocyte levels by age.

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Leukocyte blood formula in children - decoding of indicators

From birth to 2 days:

At the time of birth, the child is faced with a completely different environment. As a result, all its functions begin to hastily adapt to it. The first two days in the blood of a child:

  • Neutrophils: 60-64%;
  • Lymphocytes: 24–30%;

Then, the neutrophil level gradually decreases, and then levels out compared to lymphocytes. Further, the number of neutrophils will always be greater than lymphocytes.

1st to 3 years old:

  • Neutrophils: 30-50%( segment segment), 0-1( band-core);
  • Lymphocytes: 37-57%;
  • Basophils: 0-1%;
  • Eosinophils: 1-4%;
  • Monocytes: 10%

From 4 to 6 years:

  • Neutrophils: 35-52%( segmented), 0-1( band-nucleated);
  • Lymphocytes: 32-50%;
  • Basophils: 0-1%;
  • Eosinophils: 1-4%;
  • Monocytes: 10%

We hope you have managed to figure out what a leukocyte formula is using our website. If you have any questions, suggestions or comments, leave comments below.

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