Immature and neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood test

To analyze the state of human health, you need to undergo periodic examinations. The most informative, effective and simple way to determine how fully and efficiently the body functions is the delivery of a clinical blood test. It is recommended to pass a general analysis both to adults and children, because according to the state of some blood components, it is possible to detect a pathology or a deviation in time, especially if you examine a person or diagnose a disease in the shortest time possible.

Table of contents:
  • Types and designation of granular cells
  • Norm
  • Reasons why granulocytes are elevated
  • Granulocytes are reduced, what does this mean?

Today we will talk about the GRA indicator, in medicine this abbreviation refers to granulocytes. This is a group of white cells belonging to a subgroup of leukocytes, in the cytoplasm they manifest themselves in the form of granular, granular bodies, and hence their name. Granulocytes include basophilic, eosinophilic and neu

trophilic types of white blood cells, each of which carries its own function and role. The greatest number of the total number is neutrophilic granulocytes, which are responsible for cellular immunity. One way or another, granulocytes, like all white blood cells, are at the forefront of protecting the body from all sorts of germs and infections. They are the first to respond to various problems, and the centers of inflammation, seize, block and even digest microorganisms and bacteria that have penetrated.

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Types and prescription of granular cells

Granulocytes, like their progenitor cells, form in the bone marrow, and after morphological maturation, enter the bloodstream. These blood cells have a short lifespan, after entering the peripheral blood, there are about two or three days, and after phagocytosis they die and become part of the pus formed during inflammation.

Grain cells are subdivided into young, stab-core( immature granulocytes) and segmented nuclear granulocytes( or mature cells).

A doctor may suspect the development of an infectious-inflammatory process, according to the number of immature granulated cells. But, what are immature granulocytes in a blood test? The fact is that young and immature cellular forms in the blood should be absent in a healthy person, with the exception of only newborn babies and expectant mothers. If the immature granulocytes are elevated, then in most cases, we can talk about the development of the pathological process or the first response of the immune system to an infection or other pathogen.

If we talk about the main functions of granular cells, we can distinguish the following:

  • Neutrophils actively move in the blood, and appear in places of inflammation, in case of a severe form of the disease. When meeting the bacteria, these cells absorb the foreign element and digest it inside themselves.
  • Basophils are actively involved in immediate-type reactions, for example, in case of allergies or intoxications. It is these cells that are instantly activated when poisonous substances enter the body, for example, after insect bites or snakes, and do not allow poisons to spread throughout the body. The subspecies of basophilic granulocytes also plays an important role in the process of blood clotting.
  • Eosinophilic granulocyte is characterized in that eosinophils are able to move even outside the bloodstream, and also absorb not only small bacteria and viruses, but also large foreign particles, therefore these cells belong to macrophages.

One way or another, all granulocyte subspecies are directly involved in the recognition and destruction of various pathogens, they are blood defenders and activators of the immune response of our body.

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There are established limits for the norms of the GRA, regardless of the age and gender of a person. All calculations and interpretations are carried out under laboratory conditions, ready-made results as a percentage, are provided to the doctor for further analysis of the situation.

In addition, as a result of the analysis, the number of mature and immature granulocytes can be fixed. But, since these cells live a little and ripen extremely quickly, it is considered to be the norm, if the segmented( mature) cells occupy 45-65% of the total number of leukocytes, and the stab( nuclear) cells are from 1 to 5%.

So, it is considered to be a normal indicator of the level of granulocytes for adults from 1.2 to 6.8 * 109 / l, if we consider the absolute value, and from 47 to 72% of the total number of leukocytes, if we analyze the relative content of granular bodies.

Granulocytes in children may vary slightly, until a child is 12-13 years old, especially some subspecies of granular cells. Further, normal values ​​are considered on a par with adult indicators. Approximately it looks like this:

  • from 0 to 12 months - 15-30%( immature not more than 4%);
  • from 12 months.up to 6 years - 25-60%( immature not more than 5%);
  • 7–12 years old — 35–65%;
  • 13–15 years old — 40–70%
  • for more than 15 years — 45–70%( immature 1–5%).
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The reasons why granulocytes are elevated

Unfortunately, an ideal blood test result is not always available, you may find that granulocytes are lowered or vice versa, increased, and the causes of such deviations may be completely different.

Often, if granulocytes are elevated, the doctor makes the first assumptions that the body has an infectious inflammatory process that leads to a change in blood composition. The most likely are the following diseases and pathologies:

  • intoxication of the body;
  • parasitic and infectious lesions of the body( often: pneumonia, cholera, meningitis, scarlet fever, cholecystitis, otitis media);
  • allergic reaction;
  • recent vaccinations or taking certain medications( glucocorticosteroids or androgens);
  • malignant tumor formation;
  • gangrene or necrosis( death) of living cells and tissues;
  • acute bleeding;
  • myeloneoplastic diseases.

Neutrophil granulocytes are usually elevated in the case of: development of acute bacterial infections with

  • ;
  • exogenous or endogenous intoxication;
  • production in the bone marrow excessive amount of white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells( myeloproliferative diseases);
  • violation of the integrity of blood vessels( hemorrhage).

Lowered neutrophilic granulocytes may occur if a person develops viral pathologies such as:

  • hepatitis;
  • rubella;
  • flu;
  • chicken pox;
  • measles, and other skin diseases.

If the analysis showed that immature granulocytes are elevated, what does this mean? The fact is that the growth of young forms of granular cells signals the occurrence of inflammation in the body, so the body produces a large number of "protective" blood cells to eliminate the pathological process. In this case, the doctor has every reason to send you to a further more thorough examination in order to find the cause and the means to eliminate it.

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Granulocytes are reduced, what does this mean?

If we talk about reduced results of granular cells, then most often we are talking about autoimmune diseases. The reason for this is often eosinopenia, i.e.a decrease in the number of eosinophils, and as a result, a decrease in the body's defensesThis can happen in some diseases, for example:

  • rheumatism;
  • diabetes;
  • tuberculosis;
  • anemia;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • toxic goiter.

Sometimes, a decrease in the rate may be associated with the intake of certain pharmaceutical drugs, especially antibiotics, antitumor drugs and sulfonamides.

Granular granulocytes play an important role in the body of children and adults, they are the main protection against infections of bacterial, fungal and parasitic nature. But remember that the decoding and evaluation of the analysis values ​​should be done only by a specialist together with other characteristics and research parameters.