What is thrombocytopenia? How manifested and what to do

Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which the platelet count is below the set rate. This violation can provoke negative consequences, among which the most likely is bleeding that is difficult to stop. More information about what this is a disease of thrombocytopenia, what are its causes, symptoms and possible ways to correct the pathology, will be discussed in this article.

Why is platelet count so important?

Platelets are flat, non-nuclear blood cells that are produced in the bone marrow, function for 7-11 days and end up in the spleen. Compared with other blood cells, such as leukocytes, which accompany our body for several years, platelets "live" for a very short time. During this period, they perform the following functions:

  1. Movement and absorption

Platelets are able, randomly moving, to detect and destroy foreign bacteria and objects. In other words, they help white blood cells fight off inflammatory processes.

  1. Stopping Bleeding

A platelet membrane located on their oute

r sheath is capable of catching where blood is leaking in the body and heading there, attaching to an open wound. Platelet layers overlap the open hole and create a crust of dried blood, as we used to call it.

  1. Restoration of blood vessels

    Thrombocytopenia according to ICD 10 carries the code D69.6, this code does not take into account the characteristics of neglect and the root causes of the disease.

    Causes of thrombocytopenia

    Depending on which stage of platelet life in a malfunction occurs, there are several causes of thrombocytopenia in adults and children:

    1. Disruption of platelet production( thrombocytopenia production);

    Allastic - bone marrow, in principle, poorly copes with the production of blood cells. Not only platelets suffer from this, but also erythrocytes, lymphocytes, leukocytes.

    Meticulous anemia is a disease that affects the blood as a whole, caused by a lack of folic acid and vitamin B12.

    Myelodysplastic syndrome - new platelets appear as a result of reproduction, they do not perform their functions well enough and "die" ahead of time.

    Tumor diseases localized in the red bone marrow.

    Radiation

    Alcoholism.

    1. Inadequate distribution of platelets in the blood( thrombocytopenia redistribution);

    In the normal state, some platelets( about 30%) are deposited in the spleen for an emergency. In some cases, this number may increase to 90%, while the size of the spleen increases.

    1. Too rapid cell destruction( thrombocytopenia destruction);

    Immune thrombocytopenia is a common case of thrombocytopenia, when platelets are destroyed as foreign bodies. It is divided in turn into isoimmune( when the antibodies of one organism destroy the platelets of another organism), autoimmune( their antibodies destroy their own platelets), immune( caused by medication) types of thrombocytopenia.

    Autoimmune( idiopathic) thrombocytopenia

    The exact causes have not been established, but the provoking factors are viruses, infections( including prophylactic vaccines, HIV, hepatitis, herpes), harmful excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, hypothermia, taking certain medications( hermacteric).furosemide, etc.).

    Thrombocytopenia during pregnancy can destroy fetal platelets, with the result that the newborn will have clear signs of this disease. This is a clear example of isoimmune thrombocytopenia.

    1. Genetic predisposition of

    These diseases are classified as genetic mutations: Wiscott-Aldrich, Bernard-Soulier, TAR, Mey-Hegglin anomalies, etc.

    Symptoms

    The most significant symptom of thrombocytopenia is the result of a blood test that says that the platelet count is below 150 thousand / μl. However, tangible signs of thrombocytopenia are observed only when their number drops to 50 thousand( which is three times lower than the norm).

    When thrombocytopenia occurs, there are bruises on the body, difficulty in stopping even the most trifling cuts, bleeding from the nose and the mucous membranes of the mouth.

    A characteristic of thrombocytopenia is the deterioration of the vessels. That is why they burst and get damaged for no reason or after a minor mechanical impact. As a result, red spots and capillaries appear on the patient's skin.

    The general condition of the patient does not deteriorate with thrombocytopenia, due to which the violation can not be noticed in time, and it in turn threatens at any time to result in internal bleeding, which is dangerous and even fatal.

    Thrombocytopenia occurs most often in children under 7 years of age or in adults after 40.

    Treatment

    Hospitalization is recommended for people who have platelet counts of less than 20 thousand per microliter( or 20 ∙ 109 / l).The rest can be treated on an outpatient basis.

    Even if you have some symptoms of thrombocytopenia, you can begin treatment only after receiving confirmation in the form of a blood test.

    If thrombocytopenia is an independent violation in the body, it is called primary( essential) thrombocytopenia. If it is caused by other extraneous diseases( leukemias, cirrhosis, etc.), this is secondary thrombocytopenia.

    Virtually any thrombocytopenia can be successfully cured by detecting and eliminating the root cause of the disease, without resorting to this with special medications that increase the number of platelets.

    Drug treatment is used only when the platelet count falls below 20 thousand / μL, involuntary bleeding from the nose and mouth, conjunctival areas often occur, multiple eruptions appear on the mucous membranes and face. Among the medical treatments used:

    • Prednisone

    A hormonal steroid that relieves the symptoms of thrombocytopenia after a week. The negative effects of the drug may affect the gastrointestinal tract, weight gain, magnesium and potassium deficiency.

    • Removal of the spleen

    In some cases, for example, for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, splenectomy is effective in most cases. This is due to the fact that with this disease, antibodies are produced in the spleen, which mark the passing platelets as alien objects, as a result of which the platelets are extensively destroyed, not having time to perform their basic functions.

    Treatment of thrombocytopenia with folk remedies

    1. Broths

    Nettle, strawberries, dogrose, yarrow are helpful in reducing blood viscosity.

    1-2 tablespoons of herbs or a mixture of herbs is recommended to pour a glass of boiling water, insist, strain and drink a tablespoon three times a day. This will help reduce the frequency and frequency of bleeding.

    1. Juices

    Natural juices from cherries, raspberries, ashberries, apples, birch, beets, cabbage and even black radish help in the treatment of thrombocytopenia.

    1. Nutrition for thrombocytopenia

    Since there is a risk of damage to the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines during thrombocytopenia, the food should be gentle and preferably crushed.

    Alcohol is contraindicated, as it has a detrimental effect on the bone marrow - the main source of platelets.

    It is recommended to add meat, fruits, vegetables to your diet. Vegetarianism at least at the time of treatment should be avoided.

    Replacing sunflower oil with sesame oil during thrombocytopenia is a very simple way to adjust the number of platelets, almost without noticing changes in your diet. You can take sesame oil on a teaspoon before meals.

    If you have not fully understood what is thrombocytopenia in adults, and you still have questions, tips or stories on the topic of the article, write them in the comments!

    God bless you!