Norm reticulocytes. The reasons for the increase and decrease in blood count
Blood can be called a reflection of the health of the body. Judging by the results of the general blood test, the doctor not only assesses the general condition of the patient, but also makes a preliminary diagnosis and monitors the effectiveness of the treatment. But a responsible and inquisitive patient should have a general idea of blood counts in order to be aware of the processes occurring in his body. Today we will understand what reticulocytes are in the blood test and which can be judged by their number.
- Norm of reticulocytes in the blood test
- Reticulocytes increased
- Reticulocytes reduced
Reticulocytes are the primary cells from which red blood cells are subsequently obtained. Reticulocytes appear in the bone marrow from erythroid cells, normoblasts. Two days after they appear, they move to the peripheral blood. The conversion of reticulocytes into erythrocytes occurs under the action of the hormone, erythropoietin, which is produced by the kidn
Thus, a decrease or increase in reticulocytes may indicate some processes and diseases occurring in the bone marrow, kidney, blood and spleen.
What are reticulocytes in the blood for?
Since reticulocytes are the precursors of erythrocytes, it is reasonable to list the main functions of erythrocytes in the blood:
- Obtaining oxygen from the lungs;
- Transporting it to all tissues;
- Carbon dioxide removal in the opposite direction;
- Protection: participation in blood clotting, specific and nonspecific immunity;
- Regulate the composition and quality of blood: pH, ion content, water balance.
The rate of reticulocytes provides the optimal content of red blood cells in the blood and maintains their number at about the same level.to contents ↑
The rate of reticulocytes in the blood test
Up to the age of 12-13, the rate of reticulocytes in children does not depend on gender. However, when a girl enters a period of maturation, and she begins regular menstruation, the range of acceptable values for reticulocytes expands.
Reticulocytes in children is the norm depending on age:
- Less than two weeks - 0.15-1.5%
- 2-4 weeks - 0.45-2.1%
- 1-2 months - 0.25-0.9%
- Half a year –2 years - 0.2–1%
- 2–6 years –– 0.2–0.7%
- 6–12 years –– 0.2–1.3%
It is recommended to check the reticulocyte rate in the blood with a doctorin children depending on the specific age. New in general, it should fit into the above intervals.
Norm of reticulocytes in the blood of women:
Over 12 years - 0.12-2.05%
Norm of reticulocytes in the blood of men:
Over 12 years - 0.24-1.7%
Designation in reticulocyte analyzes: RET,measured in%( ppm).to contents ↑
Reticulocytes are increased
A condition in which the level of these cells in the blood rises is called reticulocytosis. This is usually associated with a sharp unnatural decrease in the number of red blood cells, as a result of which the bone marrow begins to hastily replenish their reserves.
- The destruction of red blood cells( hemolysis)
RET in this case may exceed the norm by three times! Hemolysis is caused by intoxication of the body( poison of the viper), malaria, taking medications for ertremia, as well as autoimmune reactions - processes that are aimed at the destruction of red blood cells by their own immune cells due to a malfunction.
- Blood loss
Excessive bleeding causes a response in the body in the form of accelerated production of reticulocytes. This can be called a positive option if the bleeding is eliminated. Soon the blood will be replenished to normal. In the meaning of the norm in women, reticulocytes, which change during the period of menstruation, are also taken into account.
Penetration of metastases in the bone marrow, tumors and inflammatory processes can cause a sharp increase in reticulocytes. This includes chemotherapy and the recovery period after it.
- Positive prognosis for the treatment of anemia
With iron and folic acid deficiency anemia develops, which is manifested by a decrease in red blood cells. If the treatment is prescribed correctly, after about a week a sharp increase in reticulocytes occurs in the body. This should be noted by the attending physician as a positive, but controlled fact.
- Acceptance of some drugs
Even antipyretic drugs can affect the fact that reticulocytes in the blood are elevated in an adult.
- Ascent into the mountains or another ascent.
RET information alone is not enough to find out the exact reason why the level of reticulocytes has risen. It is necessary to undergo related examinationsto contents ↑
Reducing the number of reticulocytes indicates that the bone marrow has become less their produce, which means that red blood cells will be less, which can lead to depletion of oxygen in tissues. This happens in the following conditions:
Due to a lack of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired, which leads to a decrease in the number of red blood cells and reticulocytes.
Aplastic anemia and a chronically reduced number of reticulocytes can be life threatening.
Disruption of the thyroid gland.
- Tumors, chemotherapy
Cancer, radiation sickness, the effects of chemotherapy can inhibit the bone marrow, causing both reduced and increased numbers of reticulocytes.
- Diseases of the kidneys and bone marrow
Sometimes, even without the presence of any disease, after prolonged erythropoiesis, these organs are depleted, which disrupts the normal number of red blood cells. Sometimes the level of reticulocytes can even drop to zero.
- Alcohol abuse
Alcohol in excessive quantities acts in several directions at once:
- Negatively affects the kidneys;
- Its toxicity provokes the destruction of the cells themselves;
- Inhibits bone marrow activity.
- Drug use
The group of drugs that can cause a decrease in reticulocytes include chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, carbamazepine.
What can affect RET analysis?
- Incorrect blood donation
Blood must be taken on an empty stomach. At least 8 hours should pass from the last meal. Drinking during this time is allowed only water. It is necessary to inform the doctor about taken medications, if possible to donate blood 3 weeks after discontinuation. On the eve, before giving blood, refrain from fatty and fried foods, from alcohol and physical exertion.
- Deficiencies in the laboratory
Incorrect selection of anticoagulant, insufficient mixing can distort the results.
- Manual Analysis Method Using an
Microscope This is an outdated method, which, although it does exist, is still less accurate than automatic counting.
Any abnormality should guide the doctor and patient for further examination, which will allow to find out the causes and eliminate the possible disease in time. Do not forget to regularly take a general blood test, as the timely detection of a problem once can save you time, money and health.
God bless you!