Hyperproteinaemia and hypoproteinemia

Hyperproteinaemia is an ultra high content of total protein in the blood. Proteins or proteins include many compounds that differ in function and structure. Analyzing the high content of protein in the blood, it is possible to draw an initial conclusion about the health of the patient, as well as to assume the presence of any diseases. Learn more about how to decipher the analysis with a high content of total protein, will be discussed below.

Table of contents:
  • Functions of proteins
  • Norm of total protein in blood
  • Protein increased in blood: what does this mean?
  • Hypoproteinemia: causes of
  • Total protein in the blood is increased and decreased in pregnant
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Protein functionsIn total, their number includes about 300 items, but this list is constantly updated.

Read about albumin in the blood test here. What analysis shows on globulins is discussed in detail here.

Some types of proteins constantly circulate in the blood, maintaining the health of the body

, while others appear only during times of danger, for example, immunoglobulins, which are responsible for the immune response to an irritant or disease-causing organisms.

Typically, a high protein content in the blood is associated with the fact that albumin or globulin is produced much more than is consumed.

In the blood, the total protein performs the following tasks:

  1. Participates in the distribution of fluid between and inside the vessels.
  2. Participates in blood clotting.
  3. Transports hormones, some medications, microelements, etc. through tissues.
  4. Participates in enzyme reactions.
  5. Composes an immune response to protect the body.
  6. Supports water-salt, acid-base balance;
  7. Functions as receptors and hormones.

Each of these roles is of paramount importance for life and normal well-being. If there is an increased total protein in the blood, it is necessary to determine and eliminate the cause of this deviation. But before analyzing a high concentration of total protein, it is necessary to know the rate of its content.

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The rate of total protein in the blood

The optimal indicators depend on the age of the patient. Content is measured in grams per liter( g / l).The average rate for an adult is 65-88 g / l. We give reference values ​​depending on age.

  • Premature babies up to 1 month: 35-59;
  • Full-term babies up to 1 month: 45-67;
  • 1 month- 1 year: 43-78;
  • 1-4 years: 59-74;
  • 5-7 years: 52-78;
  • 8-18 years: 57-78;
  • 18-35 years: 75-88;
  • 36-59 years: 76-85;
  • 60-75 years: 74-78;
  • Over 75 years: 68-78.

Any increase in the concentration of total protein in the blood compared to the norm is called hyperproteinemia, regardless of what causes it was caused. So we can say that hyperproteinemia is not a specific disease, but a symptom that is caused by a disruption in the work of some organ or system. If the total protein, on the contrary, is too low, they are talking about hypoproteinemia, the causes and the specific disease are investigated separately.

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Blood protein increased: what does it mean?

A distinction is made between absolute, relative, and physiological deviations from optimal indicators of total protein. This classification is typical for hyper-and hypoproteinemia.

For an absolute decrease or increase in total protein in the blood, the causes are associated with a change in the number of protein compounds themselves by the same amount of fluid in the bloodstream. This phenomenon is less common than relative.

Relative deviation is maintaining the amount of proteins at the same level, but increasing or decreasing the amount of water in the blood plasma.

Physiological causes, when elevated protein in the blood, are not associated with the disease. This includes improper preparation of the patient for analysis or violation of the methodology for its conduct by a laboratory assistant. For example, if he presses the skin for too long before taking blood. At this point, some of the water is lost in the tissues, and an elevated level of blood cells, including proteins, remains at the blood collection site. However, it is extremely erroneous to write off an exaggerated result for these reasons. If you doubt the reliability of the analysis, donate blood again.

Diseases characteristic of absolute hyperproteinemia:

  • Oncology of the lymphatic system( Hodgkin's disease);
  • Hepatitis;
  • Cirrhosis;
  • Sarcoidosis;
  • Autoimmune;
  • Oncology of other species: myeloma, bone marrow neoplasm, heavy chain disease.

Relative elevated protein in the blood indicates dehydration. The water level decreases, so the concentration of proteins increases, although their number remains the same. This can be observed with diarrhea, vomiting, extensive burns, diabetes insipidus, increased sweating, intestinal obstruction, etc.

The causes of hyperproteinaemia are almost always associated with diseases, so it is very important to detect and, if possible, eliminate its cause in time.

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Hypoproteinemia: Causes of

The main factors affecting a low analysis result are a decrease in the body's protein production, its increased consumption or dilution of blood with additional water.

Diseases that are associated with this phenomenon can affect certain organs and tissues:

  1. Kidney.

Glomerular inflammation, amyloidosis of this organ or diabetic nephropathy leads to the fact that a large amount of protein leaves the body through urination.

  1. GIT

Protein can also be consumed through the gastrointestinal tract, if the work of the latter is impaired by inflammation, tumors, etc.

  1. Skin

Burns, skin damage from injuries, bleeding, or disease( such as psoriasis) also affect severe protein deficiency.

The following factors also contribute to a decrease in total protein:

  • Oncology;
  • Toxic poisoning;
  • protein-free diet;
  • Disruption of protein absorption in the body( in the intestine);
  • Hyperhydration;
  • Lab error.

A critical decrease in total protein in an adult is 45 g / l, below this value, edema and a decrease in blood volumes in the vessels develop.

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Total protein in the blood is increased and decreased in pregnant

A low level of protein in the blood of a pregnant woman can be fraught with preeclampsia. A decrease in the protein in the blood entails several consequences at once: a decrease in the osmotic pressure in the blood, an increase in the permeability of the vessels, the release of protein into the intercellular space.

Hypoproteinemia during pregnancy can cause oxygen starvation and fetal thrombocytopenia. In addition, there is even a threat to the life of the child and mother. When obtaining a similar blood test result, it is important to conduct a number of procedures as soon as possible for the treatment of hypoproteinemia and restoration of the protein standard.

At the same time, the scope of the norm of total protein for pregnant women is significantly expanded. After all, a decrease in its concentration to 30% is considered a healthy manifestation. It is explained by the fact that proteins are spent on the construction of new tissues, besides the fluid is retained in the vascular space.

Increased protein in the blood during pregnancy is less common than decreased. This condition may be due to the same diseases that were mentioned above for hyperproteinemia: chronic and acute infections, cancer, dehydration, autoimmune diseases, etc.

Reduced or elevated total protein in the biochemical analysis of blood, of course, is the reason for further examination of the patient. Use only the data of this analysis for diagnosis. Also, you can not engage in independent search for the cause and its solutions. If the protein is elevated in the blood or the opposite picture is observed, it is important to provide the doctor with an opportunity to correct this deviation.

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