What is hyponatremia? Causes and symptoms of manifestation
Sodium enters the body with food, and its level in the blood must be kept at a certain level, despite the constant fluctuations in the concentration of electrolytes, their excretion in the urine and sweat. However, in some cases there is a strong lack of sodium in the blood, and this condition is called hyponatremia.
Hyponatremia is diagnosed if the concentration of Na in serum is less than 135 mmol / l. In clinical practice, water and electrolyte balance is disturbed with a wide range of pathologies in humans, with reduced sodium in the blood observed in almost 30-40% of patients hospitalized for urgent reasons and in people in critical or serious condition.
- Causes of
- Symptoms of hyponatremia
- Treatment of hyponatremia
Today we look at the signs of hyponatremia, and why there is sodium deficiency and what are the ways to increase its concentration in the blood. About the rate and reasons for the increase, please refer to the link http: //vseproanalizy.
Na + is the main ion in the blood plasma, and it can go down only in a few cases, for exampleimmoderate consumption of water( for example, with mental illness), with intravenous administration of a large number of hypotonic solutions, or with diseases of internal organs and systems that are involved in metabolic processes or are somehow connected with the regulation or filtration of body fluids. Most often this concerns the kidneys, since large sodium losses are often associated with its excessive excretion in the urine.
So, when sodium is lowered in the blood, the causes are renal( or renal) and extrarenal( estrenal), this is the first time that the doctor examining the patient should find out.
If we consider renal pathologies, the following diseases are most often caused by excessive sodium loss:
- Chronic renal failure( CRF) or acute renal failure( ARF is a sudden violation of the main functions of the kidneys);
- Polymiuric ARF stage associated with a significant increase in urine output;
- Nephronophthiasis( the appearance of cysts in the renal medulla);
- Barter Syndrome;
- Also, hyponatremia sometimes develops in acute glomerulonephritis, a kidney disease that is infectious-allergic, and is characterized by an inflammatory process in the glomeruli( glomeruli).
There are other causes of low sodium in the blood that are not related to kidney malfunction, and this is:
- Pathologies associated with abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract( diarrhea, vomiting, fistula, pancreatitis, peritonitis, etc.)
- Long-term use of diuretics;
- Excessive sweating( for example, due to heat or skin damage, cystic fibrosis, is also often seen in prof. Athletes);
- Heart Failure;
- Disruption of thyroid hormone production;
- Excess fluid intake( ex. “Unquenchable thirst syndrome”);
- Often, the sodium in the blood is lowered when it is too low with food( for example, with a salt-free diet or with a severe fasting).
Symptoms of hyponatremia
Symptoms of sodium deficiency in the body depend on the severity of this condition. Many patients, and there are no signs and symptoms that show the development of sodium deficiency.
With an abnormally low rate, a person may experience the following symptoms:
- CNS dysfunction( impaired consciousness, altered mental status, impaired personality, stupor, or, conversely, increased nervous irritability);
- Increased fatigue;
- Leg cramps;
- Frequent vomiting or severe diarrhea in a patient;
- Apathy and loss of appetite;
- Low blood pressure;
- In severe, neglected cases, a patient may experience a coma, or even death. But in this case, we are more often talking about a hypochloremic coma, and in addition to low sodium, a critically high level of urea is found in the blood, which must maintain osmotic pressure in the blood.
In case of dilution hyponatremia, simultaneously with a decrease in Na in the blood, a change in the concentration and other blood components( proteins, hemoglobin, lipids, etc.) is recorded.
It should be noted that most of the symptoms are quite general in nature, which is inherent in many pathological conditions, so it is very difficult to suspect that the Na + content in the blood is too low. And, as a rule, the patient learns about his illness after going to a doctor with other complaints, and when undergoing laboratory blood tests.to contents ↑
Treatment of hyponatremia
The success of treatment depends on the severity and form of hemodynamic electrolyte disorders.
Considering that sodium deficiency in most cases is merely a consequence of some underlying disease or condition, treatment should be directed at eliminating the root cause.
Fast correction of hyponatremia is possible with the introduction of physical.p-ra( isotonic p-ra sodium chloride), this is especially appropriate when severe fluid loss during prolonged vomiting or diarrhea. At the same time, it should be noted that the restoration of the level should be performed gradually so as not to provoke a backlash and not cause the development of neurological complications.
Treatment for mild hyponatremia( i.e., when plasma Na + concentration> 120 mmol / L), it is necessary to prevent the progression of the condition. For this, a person is recommended to limit water intake to 500-1000 ml per day, diuretics are canceled, and administration to the body in an adequate amount of sodium is prescribed.
Today you have learned what hyponatremia is, the symptoms are the treatment of this ailment. Of course, the condition requires immediate correction, often a patient with a pronounced haponatremia is sent to the hospital for examination and subsequent treatment.
Take care of yourself, stay healthy!