What are platelets in the blood. How are designated and what are responsible for

A person without medical education may not know what platelets are in the blood. But, nevertheless, some had to deal with a decrease or increase in one or another indicator in the blood. This may be due to the presence of a particular disease, or it appears as an independent phenomenon for a number of several reasons.

Platelets are one of the most important components of blood, which are small flattened plates without nuclei, which are formed mainly in the bone marrow. These small cells are responsible for the quality and timeliness of blood coagulation. This article is fully devoted to the indicator of platelets in the blood, what is their role in the body, what threatens to lower or increase their levels.

Table of contents:
  • What are platelets in general terms
  • How many platelets should there be in the blood?
  • Reasons why platelets fall in the blood of
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What are platelets in general

Platelets are one of the blood cells, the progenitors of which are megakary

ocytes, the largest cells in bone marrow. From one giant cell, about 10 thousand small platelets are produced, which later circulate throughout the circulatory system. A very serious role in the body is assigned to these blood cells, the most important purposes that platelets in the blood are responsible for are:

  • blood preservation in liquid form;
  • are involved in blood clotting processes;
  • repair damage and heal blood vessels by sticking to injured areas;
  • are involved in the mechanism of arresting bleeding.

Based on the above-mentioned duties of platelets, it becomes clear that an insufficient amount of them in the blood can be a rather dangerous condition, in this case, the body does not have protection against bleeding and large blood loss. In addition, the vessels lose their natural nutrition, become fragile and thin. In medicine, this disease is called thrombocytopenia.

No less alarming is the state when platelets are enlarged in the blood, which means that the risk of multiple clots in the blood vessels, ie blood clots, is extremely high, as a result of which they are blocked, nutrients and tissues are difficult to move,swelling of the extremities, as well as the likelihood of ischemia and heart attack. With this condition of the venous blockade, the person develops thrombocytosis.

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How many platelets should there be in the blood?

The health status of a person can often be judged by his blood formation. Normally, a healthy human platelet should contain from 200 to 400 * 109 units per liter of blood. There is an abbreviation for how platelets are labeled in a blood test - MPV, which means average platelet volume.

Like other shaped elements, this indicator is capable of changing, decreasing or increasing, and this is not always a pathology. Sometimes, the level may vary depending on the physiological characteristics of a person, after intense physical exertion, with a lack of vitamins or iron, and even at different times of the day, the indicator may be different. In women, in turn, the number of platelets may decrease during menstruation, as well as during the period of gestation of the child. During pregnancy, the level is considered acceptable in the range from 150 to 400 * 109 / l. Read more about the causes and dangers of abnormality in pregnant women, read here.

In children, the platelet count in the blood is also analyzed, and the rate is set based on the age of the child. For newborns( up to 10 days old) the normal value is considered to be from 100 to 420 * 109 / l;for babies up to a year, from 150 to 350 * 109 / l, over a year, the indicator is almost equal to adults and the acceptable limits are considered to be from 180 to 320 * 109 / l. What causes lead to a hanging or a decrease in this indicator in children, see here.

In addition to the quantitative composition, in clinical analysis, several platelet indices are investigated, one of which is the width of the distribution of platelets. It is designated PDW and shows how heterogeneous the population of blood cells is and whether there are changes in plate size in the blood. In other words, the level of PDW shows how many micro and macro platelets in the blood are as a percentage of the total. Normally, this indicator should not be more than 15-17%, in some cases deviations of 1-2% are possible, depending on the individual characteristics.

In addition to the above, in medicine there is such a thing as platelet aggregation, that it is not easy for an ordinary patient to figure out. This term refers to the ability of platelets to bond and stick together to counteract bleeding. This indicator is especially carefully studied during pregnancy in order to prevent the likelihood of serious consequences. Platelet hyperaggregation results from severe dehydration of the body and leads to the formation of large blood clots that can trigger a heart attack and stroke. Platelet disaggregation is a reverse process, increasing the destruction of blood platelets, can lead to frequent bleeding and weakening of the immune system.

It is very difficult to understand all the intricacies of laboratory studies without medical assistance, so be sure to ask all your questions at a specialist reception. But, anyone interested in health should be familiar with why blood counts jump and how to maintain platelet levels in a normal state.

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Reasons why platelets fall in the blood

Reducing the number of platelets, leads to a state of too "liquid" blood. In this position, a person risks losing a large amount of blood even with a minor cut. The causes of thrombocytopenia must be clarified, and a person must undergo drug treatment. The most common causes include:

  • leukemia and other blood disorders;
  • impaired blood platelet formation in the bone marrow;
  • high platelet destruction rate;
  • presence of serious infectious diseases.

There are many effective ways to raise platelet levels, but the doctor should draw any conclusions based on your particular case. You may need to take medications that contribute to the additional production of platelets, or to undergo steroid therapy, in advanced cases, the doctor will advise you to do a blood transfusion, with minor deviations it will be enough to reconsider your usual way of life. You can find more information about platelet increases at http: //vseproanalizy.ru/ analizyi-krovi /trombotsityi/ kak-povyisit-trombotsityi-v-krovi.html

Why does the rate increase and how to reduce the number of platelets in the blood?

Most often, the high level of these blood plates is indicative of cancer, but an increase in platelets can be observed in other diseases or pathological conditions, such as:

  • in inflammatory processes in the body;
  • infections of an infectious nature in the acute or chronic stage;
  • injuries, surgery, severe blood loss;
  • removal of the spleen, and others.

After determining the cause, an individual is given treatment to a person. In most cases, it is limited to the formation of a special diet and lifestyle. With a significant increase, in order to avoid the occurrence of blood clots, the doctor prescribes the means that thin the blood and reduce its viscosity. In emergency cases, it is recommended to undergo the procedure of thrombocytopheresis, pumping blood through the apparatus, which removes the "extra" platelets.

Read also: "What to do with high platelets."

In order to track the effectiveness of the treatment, you will need to retake the analysis, and for the result to be as truthful as possible, you need to know how to donate blood for platelets or discuss all the details of the upcoming analysis with your doctor.

In conclusion, I would like to say that it will not be superfluous for anyone to undergo periodic examinations for prevention.

Dear readers, we will be happy if you leave your feedback and advice, share experiences and ask questions in the comments.

We wish you excellent health for many years!