Renin: what kind of hormone, what are its tasks and norms in the human body?
The hormone renin is a substance that affects the water-salt balance in the human body. With his participation, normalization of blood pressure occurs. It is one of the links in a complex hormonal chain - renin-angiotensin-aldosterone. If a failure occurs in this system, the consequences for the human body can be most severe.
- Renin's functional problems
- What is the substance produced?
- What is the hormone renin responsible for?
- RRenin is a peptide hormone that is synthesized through complex biochemical processes. It has a great influence on the work of the adrenal cortex, thereby stimulating the intensive production of such hormonal elements as cortisol and aldosterone. Increasing or lowering the level of this substance leads to problems with blood pressure. to contents ↑
What is the substance produced?
Where is renin produced? This substance is produced by the adrenal glands. It is synthesized under the influence of complex biochemical processes.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of special renal cells. It is located in the field of arterioles, which, in turn, are located in the glomeruli of the kidneys. It is here that prorenin is produced, which, under the influence of blood cells, is transformed into renin.to contents ↑
What is renin hormone responsible for?
First of all, it regulates blood pressure, contributing to its increase. Active secretion of the hormone occurs in situations where:
- people suffered severe stress;
- there is a decrease in blood circulating in the vessels;
- impairs the blood supply to the kidneys;
- patient is suffering from hypotension;
- patient suffers from hypokalemia or sodium deficiency in the blood.
In addition to regulating pressure, renin contributes to the breakdown of protein secreted by liver cells. This also affects the level of blood pressure, because when it rises, the adrenal cortex more intensively releases aldosterone.to contents ↑
Clinical study for renin
What indicators of renin can be considered the norm, and what factors determine the level of the hormonal element? First of all, the position of the body in which a person is during the sampling of biomaterial influences the performance of this substance. But there is another factor that is necessarily taken into account: the amount of salt consumed by the patient. For each of these situations, the amount of the hormone is calculated differently.
Note. The norm of renin in the blood in men and women does not differ. However, if the patient is pregnant, her hormone levels may be somewhat different.back to table of contents ↑
Norms in the prone position and standing uph
- Lying position( with normal salt intake) - from 0.32 to 1.6 ng / ml / h.
In adults, in a sitting position with a low-salt diet, normal figures are considered to be from 4.2 to 19.8 ng / ml / h. In the prone position - t 0.4 to 3.2.to contents ↑
Indicators in pregnant women
Renin in women during pregnancy may deviate significantly from the norm. As a rule, such changes occur in the first trimester, when the volume of circulating blood in the mother’s body significantly increases. As a result, renin values may increase by 2 times. But by the 20th week such a violation passes.to contents ↑
The norm of the aldosterone-renin ratio( APC) is 3.8 to 7.7, respectively. This study is a screening marker of primary hyperaldosteronism.to contents ↑
Elevated and lowered renin are equally dangerous phenomena that require mandatory medical intervention. To help identify abnormalities can clinical study of blood plasma. It requires careful preparation, which should begin 3-4 weeks before the scheduled test date.
So, you can prepare for the analysis of renin as follows:
- Remove salted and smoked dishes from the menu. A few days before the test, the doctor may suggest the patient to follow a low-salt diet.
- Stop taking hormone-containing drugs, as well as drugs that may affect the reliability of the results.
- . Refuse consumption of products containing caffeine - with their regular use in almost all patients, renin is significantly elevated. Therefore, the results will be unreliable.
In addition, a few simple rules need to be followed.24 hours before the test, it is necessary to stop taking diuretics, hormonal contraceptives, ACE inhibitors, lithium, etc. The dinner before the analysis should be abandoned, and a day before it should be avoided alcohol and smoking.to contents ↑
Causes of elevated renin
Causes of elevated renin are often associated with:
- tumor neoplasms affecting the production of a hormonal substance;
- acute glomerulonephritis;
- malignant nature of hypertension;
- polycystic neoplasms in the renal tissues;
- by the development of Addison's disease.
Nephrotic syndrome or the condition that precedes it, and liver cirrhosis, can also cause increased renin in the blood.to contents ↑
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio violation
If during a clinical study it was found that the aldosterone-to-renin ratio is elevated, this is evidence of the development of primary hyper aldosteronism. This state, in turn, may be due to a number of pathological processes, so it is impossible to make a final diagnosis based on biochemical analysis alone. To do this, an ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenal glands, MRI, CT, and, if necessary, a biopsy or scintigraphy should be performed.
If aldosterone is elevated, but renin levels remain normal, then such a deviation may indicate impaired functioning of the adrenal cortex. In any case, all deviations to the higher side are not the norm, especially if in addition to hormones, indicators of potassium and sodium in the blood were affected.
Thus, low renin with normal aldosterone is not always considered as a signal that there are any pathological processes in the human body. Again, only if the levels of sodium and potassium are in the normal range. If their content is also reduced, additional instrumental diagnostic methods are assigned by the doctor to determine the causes of the deviation.
The causes of elevated renin in the blood, as can be seen, can be very different. But since a huge role in the diagnosis of diseases of the endocrine system is played by APC, based on the results of laboratory research, it is not advisable to make a diagnosis based on the results of laboratory tests to identify one specific substance from this chain.
The main thing to remember is that high renin is more dangerous than low, and the same applies to the hormone aldosterone.
Conn's syndrome, primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism, narrowing( stenosis) of the renal arteries is only the smallest part of the diseases in which the ratio of these substances can be disturbed. Therefore, do not hesitate to visit a doctor for the identification of alarming symptoms: muscle hypotonia, emotional instability, fatigue, loss of vision and pressure surges. Early treatment increases the chances of complete recovery!