History of the disease irritable bowel syndrome

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Symptoms and main causes of IBS

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a fairly common disease, which is characterized by the fact that its the symptomatic picture is manifested in the absence of any pathological changes in the body patient. For this pathology is characterized by a violation of motility, the function of fluid absorption and secretory activity of the intestine and, in particular, the colon. In this case, functional disorders are not accompanied by organic changes in the intestinal mucosa.

Medical statistics indicate that the overwhelming majority of patients with the syndrome irritable bowel, are in active age - from 25 to 40 years, with female patients being a disease strikes more often. As a rule, in patients older than 60 years this pathology is not observed.

A little about the history of the discovery of irritable bowel syndrome

For the first time irritable bowel syndrome was described in medical literature in the first half of the 19th century by William Gumming. Then information about this d

isease in the 90s of the same century was published by William Osler, classifying him as a kind of colitis, which was error, since colitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine, and this necessarily assumes the presence of pathological transformations.

The modern name of the disease irritable bowel syndrome was put into circulation already in the late 60s of the 20th century.

The term syndrome refers to the aggregate of certain signs (symptoms) that are characteristic of a given disease or condition of the body. This name practically reflects the essence of the disease, in which its manifestations do not correspond to the expected picture of the organic state of the intestine.

Possible causes of the disease

There is still no consensus on what factors can be considered the cause of the disease. Most likely, the manifestation of IBS requires the presence of a certain interaction of both socio-psychological and biological factors. In most patients, a disorder of the sensory motility of the intestine occurs against a background of stresses, psychological upheavals, depressions, and the like. It should be noted, that IBS is susceptible to persons with unstable psyche, prone to display suspiciousness, characterized by an increased level of anxiety and the presence of panic attacks.

In addition, there are also factors that either individually or in combination with each other also contribute to the development of pathology:

  • overwork;
  • absence or excess of fiber in foods included in the diet;
  • some diseases of the female sexual sphere;
  • hormonal imbalance - premenstrual syndrome, menopause, diabetes;
  • the presence in the medical history of diseases with intestinal infections that violate the bacterial balance in the intestine.

How exactly does irritable bowel syndrome develop? Under the influence of psychological factors, not only the motor function of the large intestine changes, but also its sensitivity to stimulation, both mechanical and neurohumoral. This is due to a violation of the production of the intestinal wall of neurromorphins, which control the process of intestinal peristalsis. Some patients have an increased serotonin level in the mucosa with its lack in the submucosa.

This imbalance results in an incorrect transmission of nerve impulses that regulate intestinal motility.

The main symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by:

  1. sensation of pain and discomfort in the intestines caused by flatulence and spasms;
  2. defecation, leaving behind a feeling of incomplete relief;
  3. sudden sharp urges for the release of the intestine;
  4. alternating diarrhea with constipation.

The nature of the pain experienced by the patient with IBS resembles the symptoms of poisoning - abdominal pains usually have a cramping, twisting character. It should be noted that, despite the fact that this ailment does not lead to pathological changes in the digestive system tract, and therefore does not bear dangerous consequences for the health of the patient, it significantly reduces the quality of life patient.

IBS attacks can seriously impede the attendance of public events, impede travel, violate the way of life, etc.

Every patient suffering from IBS needs to know the symptoms that categorically can not be for a given disease:

  • presence of signs of blood and pus in feces;
  • weight loss for no apparent reason;
  • increased ESR and low hemoglobin levels in the blood;
  • night diarrhea, accompanied by bouts of pain;
  • unreasonable rise in temperature;
  • the sudden appearance of persistent diarrhea at the age of over 60 years.

These manifestations indicate the presence of serious diseases of the intestine and require immediate treatment to a specialist. Especial vigilance should be shown by those who had cases among close relatives diseases of nonspecific ulcerative colitis and oncological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Methods for diagnosis of IBS

The initial diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is usually established on the basis of the existing symptomatic pattern, taking place against the background of the absence of organic pathology.

The second stage is a comprehensive examination of the patient to confirm or disprove the presence of IBS.

Very important is the differentiation of irritable bowel syndrome with a number of serious diseases that have similar symptoms - nonspecific ulcerative colitis, pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, malignant tumor lesion of the thick intestines.

For the most accurate diagnosis is necessary to conduct the following survey methods (one or more, at the discretion of the proctologist):

  • conducting laboratory studies of blood and stool;
  • examination of the intestine by methods:
    • sigmoidoscopy - examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon using a rigid endoscope;
    • irrigoscopy - X-ray examination using a contrast agent that detects mucosal defects;
    • colonoscopy - examination of the large intestine throughout its length with the use of a flexible fiber-optic probe that displays the image on the monitor.

The most modern method of studying the internal state of the large intestine, which appeared in the arsenal of specialists in recent years, can be considered method of capsular endoscopy - a detailed examination of the mucosa of the large intestine by swallowing the patient with a disposable capsule that is in process the natural passage of the intestine photographes it from the inside, without causing the patient any slight discomfort, unlike, for example, from the colonoscopy.

Irritable bowel syndrome, what is IBS, symptoms

Learn the symptoms and what is IBS

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a health problem and many people do not say much about it. People who are diagnosed with IBS experience chronic symptoms are associated with bowel function.

What is IBS?

Irritable bowel syndrome is a digestive disorder in which people experience periodic seizures and abdominal pain, in addition to significant changes in their experience of defecation. People who have IBS can experience chronic constipation, episodes of acute diarrhea and other signs of IBS.

Irritable bowel syndrome is defined as a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, in that it It causes malfunctions in the digestive system, and not with any visible signs of a pathological process or damage tissues. It is estimated that about 15 percent of the country's population suffers in some cases during their lifetime.

Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome may vary from person to person, or may change over time for anyone who has a disorder.

People with IBS can experience:

  • Abdominal pain, spasms, cramps or discomfort (often relieving defecation).
  • Diarrhea: a liquid watery stool, perhaps with a sense of urgency, three or more bowel movements a day.
  • Constipation: stiff, dry stool, tight on the stool, three or less bowel movements per week.
  • Feeling of incomplete emptying after defecation.
  • Excessive intestinal gases.
  • Bloating, which often lasts all day.
  • Changes in the appearance of the chair.
  • Mucous stool.

4 things to know about IBS

1. Researchers do not yet understand why people develop IBS. Often the disease manifests itself after an acute attack of gastroenteritis, otherwise known as gastric flu. Sometimes the symptoms appear after extremely stressful events. A high incidence of IBS is observed in adults who were victims of sexual or physical violence in childhood.

2. Irritable bowel syndrome is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms, not test results. This is because the signs of IBS do not appear on diagnostic tests. Your doctor may choose to conduct several tests based on your clinical history, but These tests are used to exclude other gastrointestinal diseases that may be the cause of your symptoms.

3. The lack of positive test results does not mean that IBS is just a thought in your head. Studies show that irritable bowel symptoms can be the result of the interaction of many factors, including some or all of the following:

  • Changes in the intestines of the motor, the speed of movement of the intestine.
  • Visceral hypersensitivity, higher sense of pain in internal organs than usual.
  • Inflammation in the intestinal mucosa.
  • Dysfunction in the communication systems between the intestine and the brain.
  • Imbalance between beneficial bacteria.
  • Food intolerance or sensitivity.
  • Increased intestinal permeability (syndrome of the gut).

4. Irritable bowel syndrome can be broken down into various subtypes: diarrhea-predominant (IBS-d), preponderance constipation (IBS-z), and variable type (IBS-a), in which the prevailing changes with time of symptoms intestines.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (Functional Colitis; IBS; Intestinal Neurosis; Irritable Colon; Laxative Colitis; Mucous Colitis; Nervous Indigestion; Spastic Colon)

Description of irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder of the intestine. IBS does not cause inflammation and does not lead to a more severe condition.

Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

The cause of IBS is unknown. With IBS, the muscles in the large intestine do not work normally and spasms may occur. In the presence of IBS, the rectum may be more sensitive, reacting to food and medications. Food allergies and some bacteria can worsen symptoms. IBS can also occur after a stomach upset (called gastroenteritis).

Risk Factors for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Factors that may increase the risk of irritable bowel syndrome include:

  • Female gender;
  • Presence of family members with IBS;
  • Age: usually begins in adolescence;
  • Stress;
  • Generalized anxiety disorder (related to IBS);
  • Abuse of anything (may be associated with IBS).

Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors.

Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

Symptoms usually appear and disappear, and range from mild to severe. They include:

  • Spasms in the abdomen;
  • Gases and bloating;
  • Pain that passes after defecation;
  • A liquid stool;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Constipation;
  • Alternating diarrhea and constipation;
  • The desire to defecate again immediately after defecation;
  • Mucus in the stool.

Factors that may worsen the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome:

  • Stress;
  • Menstrual period;
  • Overeating or consuming large amounts of fatty foods;
  • Excess of gases.

Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome

The doctor will ask about the symptoms and the medical history, and will also perform a medical examination. In many cases, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of the data obtained. While there are no diagnostic tests to determine IBS, but doctors have developed some criteria for diagnosis.

The doctor can prescribe the following tests to exclude other diseases:

  • Fecal analysis to check the presence of blood or signs of inflammation of the intestine;
  • Blood tests;
  • Enema with a solution of barium - the introduction of radiocontrast fluid in the rectum. Afterwards, X-rays are taken to the large intestine, which allows the doctor to detect abnormal areas in the large intestine;
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy - to study the rectum and the lower part of the large intestine, a thin tube is inserted into the rectum;
  • Colonoscopy - a thin tube is injected through the rectum into the thick one to visually examine the mucosa of the entire colon.

The doctor may also prescribe screen tests to search for celiac disease. which is often found in people with IBS.

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

There are no methods of treating IBS. The help is aimed at controlling and reducing symptoms of IBS.

Diet with IBS

Changes in the diet can help control the symptoms of IBS:

  • You need to keep a food diary of what you eat and how the body reacts to it. Show the records to the doctor. He can determine if you have a food allergy;
  • Make gradual changes in the diet and transfer the results of this into the diary;
  • Avoid foods that have caused health problems in the past. A nutritionist can help you find a replacement for excluded products;
  • Avoid foods and beverages that can cause IBS symptoms. These include:
    • Fat food, spicy food;
    • Dairy;
    • Onion, cabbage and other gas-forming products;
    • Consumption of large amounts of alcohol or caffeine;
  • Eat foods that can reduce the likelihood of spasms, such as:
    • Fruits and vegetables;
    • Whole grains and other foods high in fiber (sometimes a large amount of fiber can increase the release of gases and cause bloating);
  • Eat small meals more often or consume less food;
  • Eat slowly and try not to swallow the air;
  • Drink plenty of water. This will help reduce the chance of constipation.

Exercises

Regular exercise can help improve bowel function and reduce other IBS symptoms. If you want to start classes, consult a doctor to make sure that you are healthy enough.

Management of stress

Talk with your doctor about how you can reduce stress, for example, using methods such as:

  • Relaxation;
  • Biological feedback;
  • Counseling.

Training and support groups

Learn as much as possible about IBS and ways that can reduce its symptoms. You can also join a support group.

Taking medication with IBS

Depending on the symptoms of IBS, the doctor may recommend:

  • Spasmolytic agent (for example, dicyclomine, alverina citrate);
  • Antibiotics (rifaximin [Xifaxan]);
  • Preparations with high fiber content (plantain);
  • Carbon (simethicone);
  • Antidiarrheal agent (loperamide);
  • Low doses of antidepressants;
  • Painkillers (acetaminophen) - can help reduce spastic pain in the abdomen;
  • Agonists and antagonists of serotonin receptors (also called 5-HT3 antagonists) - may be useful for the treatment of diarrhea, as well as the treatment of other symptoms of IBS, such as abdominal pain in women (alosetron);
  • Probiotics ("friendly" bacteria) - may be useful, but before taking them, consult a doctor;
  • Peppermint oil.

In some cases, the doctor may recommend taking a combination of medicines.

Prevention of irritable bowel syndrome

IBS can not be prevented, since the cause of its occurrence is unknown.

Sources: http://gastrozona.ru/bolezni/srk/simptomy.html, http://well-very.ru/srk/sindrom-razdrazhennogo-kishechnika.html, http://medicalhandbook.ru/disease/3829-sindrom-razdrazhennogo-kishechnika.html



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