How to restore the motility of the stomach and intestines
Restoring intestinal motility
Each person experienced discomfort in the abdomen. In one, he goes through a couple of days, and the other has to struggle for a long time to get the bowels right.
Causes of a malfunction of the body
For a single case of an intestinal disorder, it is enough just to be overwhelmed. Stress, anxiety, intellectual overexertion can lead to disruption of his work. Often before the exam, the responsible event, people note that they begin to reduce their stomachs from fear. After the disappearance of the source of experiences, the symptoms weaken, and the body continues to work in the same regime.
Unusual food or a plentiful feast also can provoke a disease. If a violation of diet is repeated, it will lead to a permanent disruption in the work of the stomach and intestines, which will require prolonged treatment. Even a healthy person should limit himself in use:
- carbonated drinks;
- gas-forming products;
- fatty foods.
The cause of GIT disease can be:
- long-term use of drugs, for example
- hormonal changes in the body during pregnancy, menopause in women, violations of the endocrine system;
- Of course, organic diseases of the intestine will also affect his motor skills.
Signs of disruption of the digestive tract
One of the obvious symptoms is a change in the stool of the patient - its frequency, appearance, shape, which can manifest as constipation or diarrhea.
The second popular complaint is increased gassing, bloating, stitching, aching pains in it. This symptom of the disease almost disappears after emptying, but soon returns.
If the intestine does not work properly for a long time, the patient experiences intoxication of the body, which is expressed:
- weakness, decreased efficiency;
- decreased immunity and, as a result, frequent colds;
- headaches, pains in the heart.
Dysfunction of the digestive tract affects the condition of our skin: there are acne, liver spots and other rashes.
Of course, all these symptoms affect the quality of appetite. If the disease continues for a long time, patients suffer from heartburn, nausea, an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth, constant thirst.
Diagnosis of bowel disturbance
The symptoms listed above may be signs of more serious gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, when a patient with such complaints arrives, the therapist or gastroenterologist conducts diagnostics using the following tests and examinations:
- blood test;
- stool analysis;
- Irrigoscopy and sigmoidoscopy;
These methods help to identify the presence of dysbiosis, accurately determine the affected area of the gastrointestinal tract and the type of intestinal disorder.
In medicine, there are two types of disruption of the digestive tract:
- hypermotor dyskinesia - characterized by diarrhea, intestinal colic, increased muscle tone;
- hypomotor dyskinesia - the main symptom are constipation, dull pain in the abdominal area, weakening of tone and weak motor skills.
There are cases when two types of disease alternate, which requires immediate treatment in the hospital.
Based on the results of the analysis, the attending physician adjusts the patient's diet and, if necessary, prescribes medication. Medications are a secondary way to restore the digestive tract. If you do not change the way of life as a whole, the medications will bring only a short-term relief, after the cessation of the course of treatment the problem can return again, and already with complications.
Diet as a way to restore intestinal function
In most cases, a correct, balanced diet can be sufficient to enjoy a full life again.
The main requirement for nutrition is the exclusion of foods prone to cause flatulence and swelling. It is necessary to include in the diet stimulants of the intestine. To preserve vitamins and trace elements, food should be cooked for a couple, and preferably in a general form. Cut into the necessary pieces can be right before the feed itself. The daily diet should consist of several small meals. It is recommended to include sour-milk products, known for their ability to restore normal body function and fight against dysbiosis.
Medicinal products are intended to alleviate the patient's pain symptoms, reduce such manifestations of the disease, such as nausea, vomiting. If necessary, a short-term course of topical drugs is prescribed, for example, laxatives.
Treatment for diarrhea
This type of disease is easier to treat with a simple diet, but if the problem remains several days, you need to take the help of a doctor. Do not take self-medication, as this symptom may hide many infections. If no other diseases are detected, drugs are prescribed for a short period, only during exacerbations.
First of all, they prescribe antispasmodics and antifoaming agents - they relieve spasms, reduce pain, and also slow motor skills. Defoamers help get rid of increased gas formation. When manifesting such symptoms as vomiting and nausea, Tserukal (Metoclopramide) is prescribed.
One of the popular remedies for diarrhea is Smecta. Since often the cause of the disease becomes stress, the doctor can refer the patient to a therapist or independently prescribe antidepressants and sedatives.
Treatment for constipation
Treatment is carried out with drugs that increase the volume of intestinal contents. Gradually swelling after taking, the drug helps to remove toxins from the body. As a rule, it operates 10-48 hours after taking.
It is recommended to use medicines containing lactulose. Unlike conventional laxatives, these drugs do not irritate the intestinal mucosa, at the same time the problem is solved.
A patient suffering from constipation is advised to increase the amount of fluid consumed, water with magnesium ions will help.
Since any kind of disease develops against the background of dysbiosis, appropriate treatment is prescribed. Originally a short-term course of derivatives of nitrofurans, bacteriophages, enterosorbents to get rid of harmful microorganisms. Further, a favorable microflora is created for beneficial microbes with the help of such drugs as Lineks, Bifidumbacterin, Hilak forte.
Treatment with folk remedies
Folk remedies can be used in treatment if the disease is not started. Doctors also sometimes recommend using herbal tea.
From gassing, the infusions of chamomile, dill, fennel are very helpful. To stop diarrhea, you can take decoctions of plantain, sage leaves, serpentine and a blood-groove. Blueberry berries, bird cherry are known for their astringent effect.
From constipation will help to get rid of decoctions of licorice root, yarrow, well helps bark buckthorn.
After the relief comes and the disease recedes, it is necessary to continue to follow the doctor's recommendations and lead a correct lifestyle and nutrition.
7 drugs to improve gastric motility
The motor activity of the stomach is disturbed in many of its diseases, accompanied by a violation of muscle tone, peristalsis disorder and evacuation of the contents. Pharmacological group prokinetics restores motor, evacuation function of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, almost all of these drugs contribute to the elimination of nausea. Let's look at the differences between the main drugs that improve the motor motility of the stomach.
Preparations for improving the work of the stomach
The following preparations are applied only as prescribed by the doctor
Preparations based on domperidone:
- Motilium. Applied with pathologies of the upper level of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the motor function of the stomach is impaired, and also as an antiemetic. Compared with the prokinetics of the first generation, motilium does not penetrate the BBB, therefore it does not cause side effects.
- Motilac. Antiemetic, prokinetic, medicine for the therapy of functional disorders of the intestine. Does not affect gastric secretion. Stimulates the secretion of prolactin.
- The passenger. Antiemetic means. It increases the motility of the stomach and duodenum, speeding up evacuation, eliminates nausea, vomiting.
Preparations based on ticopride:
Ganaton. A new generation of prokinetics. Primary action # 8211; restoration of the stomach. Stimulates the smooth muscles of the stomach, accelerates the transit of food. Does not affect the level of gastrin. Used for non-ulcer dyspepsia and symptoms of chronic gastritis. It is authorized from 16 years.
The drug is based on trimebutin:
- Trimedat. Stimulator of GI motility. myotropic antispasmodic. Some gastroenterologists refer it to prokinetics.
Preparations based on metoclopramide:Metoclopramide
- Cerucal (Metoclopramide). Prokinetics of the 1st generation, antiemetic, anti-iotonic agent.The main drawback is # 8211; negative effects on the central nervous system, causing a lot of side effects. Obsolete drug, is used only for emergency cessation of vomiting, because it has an injection form.
1.1. Means that stimulate gastrointestinal motility (prokinetics)
Drugs that stimulate the gastrointestinal tract can be used to treat weakened motility, provided that the smooth muscle is functionally capable of contracting. Typically, patients to whom these remedies help suffer neurotropathy with reduced secretion endogenous stimulating neurotransmitters or increased release of inhibitory neurotransmitters.
With severe damage to smooth muscles due to the disease, prokinetic drugs rarely help.
Analogs of acetylcholine(betanecol),stimulate both longitudinal and circular fibers of the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, directly associating with M2-miscarinic receptors, followed by the release of inositol triphosphate or the discovery of receptor-controlled or voltage-dependent calcium channels. Betanecol is prescribed in a daily dose of 100 mg orally in 4 divided doses before meals and at night. Side effects: dry mouth, urinary retention; should be avoided in glaucoma, prostate adenoma.
Drugs blocking acetylcholinesterase, increase the endogenous concentration of acetylcholine in neuromuscular synapses. These drugs have the advantage both in regulation and in enhancing motor activity, since the control of the release of acetylcholine is carried out by the autonomic nervous system. Used drugs such asfsostigmina salicia -0.5-1 ml 0.1% solution subcutaneously,galant-min -, 5-1 ml of a 1% solution 1-2 times a day, subcutaneously orproserin -1 ml of 0.05% solution 1-2 times a day subcutaneously.
Dopamine antagonists can, in varying degrees, enhance the motility of the whole gastrointestinal tract.Metoclopromide,nonselective dopamine blocker of central and peripheral action, increases the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, strengthens the motor activity and accelerates the emptying of the stomach and the transit of contents through a thin and colon. Usual doses of metoclopramvda: 10 mg 3-4 times a day orally for 4-12 weeks or 10 mg 1-2 times a day parenterally no more than 1-2 days. Metoclopramide is suitable for the treatment of patients with diabetic gastroparesis, intestinal obstruction, nausea, vomiting and constipation in diabetic patients. It, however, is ineffective in symptomatic motor disorders in patients with progressive
multiple sclerosis and in most patients with pseudo-obstruction. Metoclopramide penetrates the hemato-encephalic barrier and causes drowsiness, inhibition, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinaemia, gynecomastia.
It should be remembered about the danger of development of metoclop-inducedmalignant neuroleptic syndrome(ZNS), which was described back in 1968. Delay and Deniker. ZNS is characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, loss of consciousness, acute dystonia, Parkinsonism. It is believed that these phenomena are due to the blockade of dopamine Dr receptors. An additional risk factor for the development of NSA is CRF. The successful treatment of the NSA with a central action dopamine agonist is reported -bromocriptinemuscle relaxantdantrolene.
Domperidone (motsshum) -peripherally acting selective antagonist of dopamine receptors, increases the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter, enhances the peristalsis of the antral section stomach and duodenum, mainly accelerates the emptying of the stomach and has a small therapeutic effect in cases of violations of the motor skills of thin and thick intestines. Domperidone does not penetrate the hematoencephalic barrier and has fewer side effects on the central nervous system. The usual dose is 10 mg 3 times daily before meals and at bedtime. Domperidone is effective in reflux-esophagitis, hypomotor cholesterolemia, with motor disorders after stomach surgery, with nausea, a feeling of overflow in the stomach.
Cisapride(coordinate) - stimulates the release of acetylcholine due to activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT4 -receptors), localized mainly in neuronal plexuses of the muscular membrane of the esophagus, stomach, intestines. The drug strengthens the esophagus motility, increases the contractility of the stomach, eliminates duodenogastric reflux of bile. Unlike other prokinetics stimulates the motility of the large intestine. Cisapride is used to treat refluss-esophagitis, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (with constipation), pseudo-obstructive syndrome in patients with diabetes mellitus. It improves the emptying of the stomach from indigestible solid food residues and can prevent the development of bezoars (Roth-stein, Alavi, Reynolds, 1993). Cisapride accelerates intestinal transit and stimulates the contractile activity of the large intestine. Cisapride can improve the condition of patients with delayed emptying of the stomach, small intestine pseudo-obstruction or atony of the large intestine. The drug is prescribed in tablets (5-10 mg 3-4 times daily before meals and at night) or in suppositories (30 mg each). Treatment can last for a long time (from several months to a year). Cisapride does not give central side effects typical of metoclopramide, and does not increase the level of prolakgan in the blood.
Erythromycin(one of the antibiotics-macrolides) - acts as a receptor agonist for motilin on the smooth muscle cell of the stomach and small intestine. Erythromycin stimulates the activity of a migrating motor complex, whose normal activity is absent in many patients with neuropathic pseudo-obstruction. However, the clinical suitability of erythromycin remains not fully established. Erythromycin improves gastric emptying, but can cause nausea, swelling and epigastric pain.
Leuprolide acetate(LA) - can improve the clinical picture in secondary functional disorders of intestinal motility.
It is believed that LA acts by reducing the concentrations of hormones inhibiting the smooth muscles of progesterone and relaxin.
Sources: http://gastritlechim.ru/tonkogo-kishechnika/vosstanavlivaem-motoriku-kishechnika.html, http://www.kliwi.ru//04/7-preparatov-dlya-uluchsheniya-motoriki-zheludka.html, http://www.rusmedserver.ru/med/bolp/204.html
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