What is dysplasia of the 1st degree of the intestine
How is adenoma of the large intestine characterized?
Colon adenoma is a benign formation of the large intestine, which creates the likelihood of development of oncology. Adenoma or polyps most often affect the large intestine. Adenoma is a precancerous condition. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the variety of formations, their dimensions (if the size of the adenoma is more than 1 cm, then the probability of malignancy is about 10%). Polyps can be single and multiple, they can have legs. The length of the polyp can be up to 2 cm. It is important to timely detect a pathology, before it starts to pose a threat.
Types of adenoma of the large intestine
There are several varieties of adenomas of the large intestine. These include:
- tubular adenoma of the colon (tubular) is the most common type of adenoma of the intestine, it is characterized by smooth surface; this polyp is dense, pink in color; The forecast for this type of polyps is most favorable;
- villous adenoma of the colon is the most dang
- mixed type - tubular-villous adenomas, which are pseudotumoral; the sprouting data is similar to both previous types of polyps;
- dentate adenoma is a polypous adenoma, at which dysplasia is observed in the superficial areas of the tumor.
Causes of pathology
Reliably, the reasons for the development of polyps in the intestine have not been established. By some assumptions, hereditary prerequisites are important. Another opinion boils down to the fact that somatic diseases provoke the formation of polyps.
The nature of nutrition is of great importance for a person and affects the condition of the whole organism. Nutrition with a high content of carcinogens, the use of high-calorie foods with insufficient amounts of fiber, reduces motor activity of the intestine. This can be one of the causes of changes in microflora and the formation of adenomas.
Also it is necessary to take into account the influence of unfavorable ecological conditions, bad habits, interaction with toxic substances, other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Even lack of physical activity affects the state of the intestines.
Characteristics of adenoma
The intestinal adenoma is also characterized by the degree of dysplasia (reversible pathological process, which can lead to malignancy). In modern medicine, there is the following classification of dysplasia.
1. Tubular adenoma of the colon with dysplasia of the epithelium of the 1st degree is a relatively normal cell division, at which cellular changes are not pronounced.
2. Adenoma of the large intestine with moderate dysplasia is characterized by a more pronounced cellular atypia. This is the 2nd degree of development of the polyp, which is a degree with a possible reverse development of the pathological process. The severity of dysplasia is much more noticeable, their accelerated division occurs. The boundaries between the layers of cells are almost indistinguishable.
3. Adenoma of the third degree is a precancerous condition, in which the probability of the reverse development of the pathological process is minimal. It is necessary to constantly monitor the oncologist.
pAt the initial stage of the formation of polyps, symptoms may be absent. Diagnosis of pathology at this stage occurs usually by accident, when examining the patient for other diseases. If the polyps reach a size of more than 2 cm, then the symptoms of the disease begin to appear. These may be the following signs:
- pain during fecal withdrawal;
- bloating, discomfort or pain;
- unpleasant sensations (sensation of a foreign body inside) and itching in the anus;
- increased amount of mucus in the feces, the appearance of blood in the stool;
- constipation or diarrhea.
These same signs may indicate an adenoma of the rectum. Accurate diagnosis is possible after the examination of the patient. With polyps of the colon and rectum, the patient gradually develops obstruction. It is also possible to develop other disorders in the body.
Diagnosis of pathology
Tubular adenoma of the rectum is also a fairly common diagnosis. To diagnose the intestinal adenoma, a finger examination of the rectum is performed, after which the polyps of the rectum are identified. But a sigmoidoscopy allows to find out presence of formations in a thick intestine, more precisely, the majority of them. A more accurate diagnosis is made by X-ray and endoscopy. Adenomas of small size can be detected with the help of irrigoscopy. As an additional method of examination, histological examination is necessary.
Treatment of intestinal adenoma
Treatment of adenoma of the large intestine is carried out in the form of a surgical operation. Treatment of cervical adenoma of the colon is also performed surgically. Conservative treatment does not give a positive result. After removal, the polyps are examined for malignancy. Before the operation, it is impossible to reliably determine the nature of education, cancer can develop inside the tumor. After removal, medicinal therapy may be used.
Treatment of tubular adenoma of the colon with folk remedies is not recommended. A popular remedy for such treatment is celandine and other poisonous plants. Such treatment can be dangerous, it can only be done after a doctor's permission.
Tubular adenoma or polypoid adenoma are benign neoplasms, which are a monoclinic derivative of epithelial cells. Such a tumor is small and about the size is about one centimeter. Medical experts say that tubular adenoma can be regenerated from a benign tumor into cancer. It is adenomatous polyps that are the main cause of the onset and development of colorectal cancer.
To date, the real reasons for the appearance of this type of adenoma are not fully understood. Medical research proves that the excessive consumption of animal fats in the diet induces the appearance and development of both adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. Also increases the risk of tumors and high-calorie food. The evidence suggests that in countries where the number of patients with colorectal cancer has been increased, used in eating a lot of animal fat and a small amount of fruit, as well as fiber vegetables structure.
Tubular adenoma is diagnosed in about 5% of people of different ages. Little children are no exception. Tumors of this kind are very common. And their growth is directly related to the age-related changes in a person.
The size of the tumors can be different - from small (several millimeters) to large (one centimeter) in size. Sometimes they can reach two to three centimeters. Neoplasms can be either on the stem or on broad bases, that is, sessile. The size of the stem depends on the size of the tumor.
Tubular adenoma of colon
The tubular adenoma of the large intestine has a wide base with indistinct boundaries. It is red. It does not differ in size, so its appearance in the human body may not have any symptoms. But medical specialists still distinguish a number of specific symptoms.
These include the presence of mucous blood discharge during defecation, discomfort and pain in the anal canal, the presence of itching, diarrhea or constipation, as well as bloating. Such signs of the appearance of the disease can occur both all at once and separately. But if a person observes the appearance of several symptoms at the same time, then immediately consult a medical professional.
Often there are cases of manifestation of single tubular adenomas of the large intestine. They occur in a certain area of the large intestine in the form of a dense neoplasm of circular shape. It is smooth and without ulceration. Often located on a pedicle, but it can also be on a wide base. But the mucous membrane of the tumor is unchanged. It is pink in color with a normal vascular pattern.
Multiple adenomas have a small size (up to, centimeters). They have a short leg. And the mucous membrane is also unchanged. There are cases when adenomas of various shapes and sizes are located on the mucous membrane of the colon. Because of their placement, one can not see the healthy area of the mucous membrane of the large intestine.
Tubular adenoma of the colon is essentially a tubular adenoma. They are formed from straight or branching tubules. This type of disease is diagnosed with a professional examination or a colonoscopy procedure. In cases of positive diagnosis, treating physicians do not always resort to surgical interventions. This is due to the fact that this type of adenoma very rarely leads to the formation of malignant tumors. And medical specialists prefer to observe first the development of the disease.
In those cases, when surgical intervention is still prescribed, one of the species can be used for it, such as loop electrocoagulation, endomicrosurgical intervention or transural resection of the affected site. For each individual case, the attending physician selects the most optimal and effective method of surgical intervention.
Tubular adenoma with dysplasia is inherent in all adenomatous polyps. Among them, low-grade and highly differentiated dysplasia is isolated. The last type of dysplasia is very similar to cancer. And it affects five to seven percent of patients with bowel adenoma disease, and three to five percent - malignant tumor form.
Often this condition is due to abnormalities in the proper development of cells. That is, to develop into a malignant cancer such an adenoma with dysplasia has not had time. But it requires medical treatment, because a tumor with dysplasia develops in the late stages of the disease and at large sizes. In such cases, the correct treatment will be the operation.
In tubular adenoma with dysplasia, several types of surgical intervention are distinguished. These include the transanal principle of resection of the tubular polyp by the endoscope, electrocoagulation or the cutting of the damaged areas by the usual surgical method. The presence of this type of adenoma can lead to severe lesions of the digestive tract.
If the degree of dysplasia is poorly expressed, the epithelial cell cover thickens, and the basal layer of them has a split appearance. This increases the mitotic activity of the cells themselves, and there is exudative inflammation. The nuclei of cells are hypochromic, and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is increased.
In tubular adenoma with moderate dysplasia, polymorphism and proliferation of cells occur in the germinative layer of the epithelial layer. At the basal layer the boundary is blurred. With this condition, the cells have a juicy large appearance, they are different in size and shape.
If a severe degree of dysplasia is expressed, then there is an obvious polymorphism of cells with hyperchromia and the variability of their sizes. They occupy, 5% of the epithelial layer.
Variety of malignant adenomatous polyp
Tubularly villous adenoma resembles a villous and tubular polyp. Very often there are neoplasms two to three centimeters in size. Basically, such a tumor is found in the thick and sigmoid colon. It can be malignant in nature. And in such cases, surgical intervention is necessary.
This type of adenoma can be expressed in three degrees of dysplasia (mild, moderate and severe). And the tumor itself has a lobed surface that resembles the appearance of a raspberry fruit. The nasal polyp is expressed in larger size than the tubular. This type of adenoma has two forms - creeping and nodular.
Tubularly villous adenoma occurs gradually from previous species of polyps. For such a transition, an average of three to four years is required, so that each form of polyps grows into a specific type of cancer. The malignancy process also requires a period of two to three years. And in total, for the formation of the above-mentioned type of adenoma, an average of ten to fifteen years is required.
Often such a disease is eliminated only by surgical methods. In such operations, the main complication is bleeding. It occurs within ten days after the operation. The appearance of blood from the anal opening on the first day after resection of tubularly villous adenoma is associated with a small process of coagulation of the vessels of the tumor's leg. Also, later bleeding may occur. Their appearance is noted from five to twelve days after surgery.
Also, with surgical intervention in the presence of tubularly villous adenoma, complications such as perforation of the intestinal walls appear. This is associated with a large burn of its walls in the area of formation of the resection part during electrocoagulation.
Dysplasia of the stomach
Dysplasia of the stomach- a violation of internal, superficial and deeper epithelial layers, its basic functional properties. In its basis, physicians note exactly the mutation of internal cells of the epithelium of the stomach, when there is a substitution of healthy for the affected. As a result of the development of this disease, the secretion of the stomach decreases at times, the inner layer of the gastrointestinal tract is affected more, the healthy cells lose dramatically in their lifespan.
Causes of pathology development
The causes of the development of such a disease as dysplasia can be both internal and external.
To external physicians carry:
- frequent consumption of alcohol,which irritates the walls of the stomach, affecting its epithelium;
- smoking and excessive consumption of pickles and smoking, fatty meat and fish,which excessively irritate the stomach;
- lack of vitamins, macro and trace elements, as well as low-quality water,the patient, the air breathed by the person;
- poor-quality food,food that is the patient.
For internal reasons, doctors attribute the following reasons:
- the formation of pathogenic neoplasms. substances that form in the digestive tract;
- inability of the stomach to suckfrom food macro and microelements, vitamins;
- failure in the immune system,as well as genetic, hereditary predisposition.
With growing consumption of plant foods, natural, fresh vegetables and fruits, quality products nutrition, compliance with certain dietary rules will prevent, avoiding the development of problems with stomach.
- Dyskinesia of the stomach - symptomatology and its treatment
- Low-differentiated and highly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma
- Candidiasis of the stomach - causes, symptoms, treatment
Degrees of development of pathology
In practice, physicians distinguish three degrees of pathology.
- Dysplasia of the stomach 1 degree- at this stage of the disease the cells increase in their diameter, the secretion of the stomach decreases, manifesting itself in the form of intestinal metaplasia;
- Second degree of disease- changes are more and more manifested when the number of mitoses in the digestive tract increases;
- Third degreethe development of the disease manifests itself hyperchromatosis, flowing in the nucleus, the cells - are increasingly atypical, the number of mitoses sharply increases the number of mitoses, secretion in the stomach is practically absent.
Speaking about the reversibility of pathology - so the first and second stages are perfectly treatable, they are reversible. But in the third stage of the course of dysplasia, intense therapy is shown - it is considered to be precancerous and therefore, in the absence of treatment, stomach cancer may well provoke.
Treatment of the disease
As noted earlier - gastric dysplasia treatment provides for not only conservative, drug treatment, but the use of traditional medicine methods. Regarding the latter, phytotherapeutists recommend to introduce in the diet products, vegetables and herbs that affect the secretion of the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, such spices as onions and garlic, radish, spicy spices are able, in the opinion of scientists, to reduce the likelihood of developing cancerous tumors at times. Also important is the right diet, a competent ratio of plant and animal food - this will help to overcome the dysplasia itself, but also other problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
Also very actively doctors use and a course of reception of antibacterial preparations. But this method will bring more benefits for children and adolescents who have not yet formed the digestive system and fully gives in to effective treatment of antibiotics, but on an adult patient they act less effectively.
With regard to prevention, in this case, children and adolescents are at risk, and that's why they are recommended for regular check-up, twice a year on X-ray and with the help of gastroscopy.
Sources: http://rakustop.ru/kak-xarakterizuetsya-adenoma-tolstoj-kishki.html, http://ymadam.net/zdorove/zabolevaniia/tubulyarnaya-adenoma.php, http://ogastrite.ru/zabolevaniya-zheludka/displaziya-zheludka/
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