What are intestinal adhesions and how to treat them?


What is the danger of intestinal adhesions. Causes, Symptoms and Methods of Treatment

Spike- this formation of connective tissue, which can occur as a result of inflammatory processes and injuries. If they are located in the abdominal cavity, and attach to the loops of the large or small intestine, then they make a diagnosis - intestinal adhesions. The symptoms and treatment of this disease described here will prompt you when to see a doctor to prevent the development of complications.

Principle of adhesions formation

The peritoneum is the mucosa, which covers the abdominal cavity from the inside. It covers the walls of the cavity (parietal) and envelops the intestinal loops (visceral). Its damage in trauma or inflammation causes a number of changes on the part of the body aimed at rapid healing.

As with any trauma, substances participating in the formation of connective tissue enter the area of ​​the lesion from the plasma. In parallel, there is a development of compounds that must destroy this tissue after

complete restoration of the mucosa. When this does not happen, spikes are formed.

Causes of adhesions

Injuries, inflammatory processes are the main causes that cause adhesion. It often occurs after the operation and is observed under the following conditions:

  • trauma in the abdominal area, which can be open and closed, causing internal injuries or bleeding. Any damage to the peritoneum triggers the regeneration of the mucosa;
  • diseases of the abdominal cavity. Inflammatory diseases of the abdominal organs - cause irritation of the peritoneum or its damage and infection. Perforation (perforation) of gastric and intestinal ulcers, gallbladder rupture, appendicitis, inflammatory processes in the organs of the small pelvis - the main causes of peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum due to infection or irritating substances);
  • Surgical operations in the abdominal cavity cause injury of the peritoneum and symptoms of its irritation. The same happens if the blood is not completely removed from the abdominal cavity, bleeding is stopped, or foreign objects (tampons and others) are left during the operation;
  • heredity plays an important role in the formation of adhesions. In some people, connective tissue is formed more actively or disrupted the formation of enzymes that destroy it. In such people, spikes are formed more often, especially after surgery.

Attention!Inflammatory diseases of the abdominal organs require timely treatment to the doctor.

Types of adhesions and symptoms of their manifestation

Spikes in the intestine have a different structure and location. They can be thin, stretch well, with non-expressed blood vessels. Such formations rarely cause anxiety in patients and treatment is not required. Another species - wide, with well-developed vessels and nerves, can form dense strands, cause soreness and other symptoms of the disease.

By location, there are spikes between the two ends of one intestinal loop, between the loops and the intestinal adhesions with nearby organs or the abdominal wall. In these cases, pain is often given to the location of the organ or to the area of ​​the scar after surgery. And solderings between loops more often become the reasons of infringement of digestion and worsen patency of food.

Symptoms and forms of the disease course

Depending on the patient's complaints, the following forms of the disease are distinguished:

  • the disease does not manifest itself and is detected during surgery, with a preventive or diagnostic examination;
  • complaints of traumatic pain, after an operation in the field of intervention. It occurs after a load, with the tension of the abdominal muscles;
  • the patient complains of dyspeptic phenomena (nausea, bloating, feeling of bursting, vomiting, stool breaking);
  • Adhesions disrupt the progress of food through the intestines, prolonged constipation is observed, there may be an acute intestinal obstruction, a curvature of the intestine.

If the patient finds multiple spikes of the intestine, and possibly other organs, this condition is called a commissural disease. Its causes are hereditary predisposition.

To make a diagnosis, further studies are carried out. X-rays of the abdominal cavity can detect signs of decreased intestinal permeability (constriction, narrowing of the lumen). One form of fluoroscopy is iridoscopy. Carried out with the introduction of radiopaque retrograde (enema). Contrast substance settles on the walls of the intestine and with fluoroscopy, you can see the location of loops, their widened or narrowed sections. These are also symptoms of the disease.

As an additional method of research, you can also use ultrasound.

Complications in the formation of intestinal adhesions

The most frequent complications in bowel spasms are acute intestinal obstruction and bowel necrosis caused by blood flow disorders. Surgical treatment is shown.

Acute intestinal necessity is characterized by abdominal pain, raspiraniyem, lack of stool for two days. With late detection, it causes necrosis and peritonitis. Patients with a commissural disease may occur several times.

This is important to know!Stitching, severe pain in the abdomen, lack of stool for two days, require urgent call for ambulance and hospitalization.

Necrosis of the gut arises at the pressure of the adhesion to the artery feeding its tissues. In such cases, the treatment consists in resection of the intestine (removal of the affected part). These complications lead to disability of the patient.

Treatment and prevention

Only a doctor can decide how to treat intestinal adhesions. In case of accidental detection during the examination, treatment is not required, but the patient should be warned about possible complications, advise to follow the diet. If there are pain and dyspeptic effects, you need to find the cause. Treatment of the main focus of inflammation and surgical excision is shown.

Surgical excision is performed endoscopically or with laparotomy. The endoscopic method (laparoscopy) is used both for diagnosis of the disease and for excision of single or few adhesions. Laparotomy is done with numerous ligaments and in the presence of complications.

Excision in laparotomy

Preventative methods consist in the timely treatment of diseases of the abdominal cavity, which can lead to inflammation of the peritoneum or peritonitis.

It is necessary to carefully and carefully handle mucous membranes during routine or emergency operations, it is good to clean the abdominal cavity of pus, blood. Do not use irritants to cleanse. You can not injure internal organs and forget to remove tampons and surgical instruments. You can introduce fibrinolytic substances that will prevent the formation of adhesions.

After the operation, as soon as possible, it is necessary to raise the patient to his feet, in some cases, patients are forced get up and walk on the second day, it helps to adjust the digestive system and prevents adhesion.

The likelihood of intestinal adhesions in humans is different. But you need to use prevention methods, follow the advice of the attending physician to reduce it. If they are still formed, then it is necessary to follow a diet to avoid constipation and complications. And in case of complications, immediately consult a doctor.

Adhesive bowel movements - symptoms

Internal organs are covered with a mucous serous membrane. Due to various pathological processes, it can fuse and be replaced by a connective tissue. One example is the intestinal adhesions - the symptoms of this condition are manifested, as a rule, after mechanical damage, surgical interventions or after the relapse of a chronic disease.

Causes of intestinal adhesions

The mechanism of appearance of splices is associated with the fact that the integrity of the epithelium of the peritoneum is impaired. In places of damage, scarring begins by means of a connective tissue that solder cells of the mucous membrane.

The main factors provoking the described process:

  • inflammatory infectious diseases, especially peritonitis in acute and chronic form;
  • appendicitis and subsequent removal of the appendix;
  • open and closed injuries of the abdominal cavity;
  • ulcer of duodenum with perforation (through wall breakthrough);
  • inflammation of the ovaries and appendages in women, long time not subject to treatment;
  • genetic predisposition with increased production of enzymes responsible for the growth of connective tissue;
  • any surgical intervention in the area under consideration.

It should be noted that intestinal adhesions after surgery do not appear immediately, but after a long period of time: from 2 to 6 months. Therefore, surgeons are always advised to continue to be observed by a specialist within six months after the manipulation.

How to identify adhesions in the intestine?

Due to the fact that the process of adhesion is quite long, sometimes takes 3-4 years, the clinical manifestations Only visible if complications are already present, which makes diagnosis and assignment difficult therapy.

Symptoms and signs of intestinal adhesions:

  • dyspepsia;
  • raspiranie in the vicinity of the center of the abdomen and near the navel;
  • pain syndrome, increasing after exercise, as well as eating "heavy" food;
  • digestive disorders in the form of constipation;
  • bloating;
  • decreased intestinal motility, lack of stool for more than 3 days.

Often, with prolonged inactivity of the patient, severe consequences develop, for example, intense pain during intestinal adhesions due to acute obstruction of its lumen. They arise against the background of multiple fusion of serous tissue and intestinal transmission, which prevents the normal passage of fecal masses.

Another complication, which is already being addressed to the surgeon, is the necrosis of the site of the organ. The condition occurs because there is a lack of blood circulation in some areas of the intestine (the artery contracts). It is impossible to cure this pathology, the therapy provides removal (resection) of the dead part of the intestine.

Diagnosis of intestinal adhesions

To accurately determine the causes of the symptoms described above, the following methods are used:

  1. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity on an empty stomach to avoid the likelihood of the appearance of gases in the lumen of the intestine.
  2. Clinical detailed analysis of blood, allowing to identify inflammatory processes in the body.
  3. Radiography or magnetic resonance imaging with a barium mixture as a contrast agent.
  4. Laparoscopy for diagnostic purposes. This operation is performed under anesthesia. During the intervention, a single incision is made through which a thin flexible tube with a miniature video camera is inserted. The event helps to accurately determine the presence or absence of adhesive process, the size and number of seizures, the degree of destruction of the intestinal tissues, therefore it is considered the most informative.

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Symptoms of intestinal adhesions

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History knows a lot of different problems with the digestive tract, which can be experienced by a person. This is fraught with a strong disruption in the metabolism, because the main absorption is there. There are cases when spikes are formed on this part of the tract - this is a very serious problem, and it is necessary to fight it as soon as possible. In fact, spikes are cloth strands that are gross enough to form between organs or within organs and interfere with their normal movement. Imagine a situation when you have a burned skin on your finger after the burn. This skin does not allow you to move your finger the way it was without the scar. Similarly, it occurs inside organs with spikes. What are the symptoms of intestinal adhesions?

To begin with, spikes can be found in any organ and often patients generally do not notice their existence, sometimes a rare periodic pain is felt, sometimes the function of the organ in which there is spikes. Symptoms of intestinal adhesions are given below:

  • constipation, stool retention;
  • stomach ache;
  • nausea;
  • frequent bloating;
  • indigestibility of certain types of food;
  • possible weight loss;
  • increased pain after exercise.

Spikes are fraught with complete or partial obstruction of the intestine. This affects badly, both on metabolism, and on the state of the body as a whole. With the utmost neglect of this problem, it can go to relapse - sudden vomiting, acute pain in the abdomen. Then you need to go to the hospital immediately. And if you do not want to wait for such a terrible moment, I recommend to see a doctor right away, as soon as you have found all of the above symptoms. Sometimes it comes to surgical intervention - cutting out part of the intestines. In some cases, a person with intestinal obstruction can die.

Do not bring your body to an extreme state, it's better to contact the doctor right away and be healthy, cheerful and vigorous after a course of productive treatment.

Bowel adhesions

Injury to the peritoneal cover leads to adhesion.Spikes in the intestinequite often formed after the operation, since the opening of the abdominal cavity - this is also a mechanical trauma.

Adhesive disease of the intestine

Congenital fissures include Lane's cords, which are film formations that can go to the small pelvis from the sigmoid colon or distal portion of the ileum. Jackson's membranes, as a rule, cover the right part of the large intestine and are rarely found in the left.

Foreign bodies and washing with solutions of the abdominal cavity during surgery almost inevitably lead to the formation of fusions. Thus the list of foreign bodies is wide enough. In the abdominal cavity may happen to be:

tampons and napkins,

nap and thread from gauze,

A syncope of inflammatory origin is called re-inversion. Observed with chronic appendicitis, cholecystitis, colitis and duodenal ulcer. In rare cases, adhesions can form after such infectious diseases as influenza, typhoid fever, dysentery or Botkin's disease.

Bowel Syndrome: Symptoms

What are the symptoms of intestinal adhesions?

EzhulyaEnlightened (41221) 7 years ago

Women suffering from endometriosis describe pain as stitching, pulling, sharp. Pain causes nausea and exhausts the woman. At the same time, the pain itself with endometriosis is often burning, blunt, manifested by severity.

Adhesions are a film in the form of a tape, consisting of fibrous scar tissue. Spikes can form not only as a result of endometriosis, but also in many inflammatory diseases of internal organs. Such adhesions are formed between different organs, for example, intestinal loops, fallopian tubes, ovaries, bladder uterus, etc. In itself, the formation of adhesions is a protective process aimed at delimiting the inflammatory (or some other pathological) focus from healthy tissues and organs.

Adhesions in the abdominal cavity can also form after all sorts of surgical operations. In women with endometriosis, the risk of developing an adhesion process after surgery is usually higher.

Endometriosis causes local inflammation, which is a key factor in the development of adhesions. Consequently, adhesions can form as a result of the formation of the focus of the endometrioid tissue, which causes inflammation of the surrounding tissues. This leads to the formation of scar tissue, which is part of the healing process.

Unfortunately, sometimes these tissues come into contact with another inflamed tissue and instead of forming a scar between them a scarring is formed. Such adhesions can be thin, transparent, or thick, coarse and dense. in some cases, the adhesion process in the pelvic cavity can be so strongly pronounced that all the pelvic organs are fixed in one position.

Like endometriosis, adhesions themselves cause pain. The cause of pain with adhesions is that they can pinch certain organs, blood vessels. Spikes can cause some complications, such as intestinal obstruction with a pinch of the loop of the intestine, or tubal infertility when the fallopian tube is clamped.

Unfortunately, to date, there are no tools that can eliminate spikes, just as So far, there are tools for the prevention of adhesions after operations or inflammatory diseases. Although at the moment, many pharmaceutical companies and medical centers are working on this issue.

Diagnosis of spikes can be done with laparoscopy. This method, which consists in inserting a tube through the puncture into the abdominal cavity, with which the abdominal cavity is filled with gas. The abdominal wall rises in the form of a dome giving an overview to all organs and tissues. With the help of another puncture, another tube is inserted into the abdominal cavity, at the end of which there is a light bulb and a video camera lens. The image from it goes to the monitor. With the help of another tool, which is introduced through a separate puncture, it is possible to cut or burn spikes.

Sources: doktor.ru, improvehealth.ru, vmiretrav.ru, otvet.mail.ru

Sources: http://prozachatie.ru/zabolevaniya/spajki-kishechnika.html, http://womanadvice.ru/spayki-kishechnika-simptomy, http://gem-prokto.ru/publ/bolezni_kishechnika/spajki_tolstogo_kishechnika_simptomy/15-1-0-1638


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