Functional bowel disorder how to treat


Diagnosis Functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract

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It is necessary to consult with a specialist!

Functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract

Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are understood to mean a whole group of conditions, which are manifested by a variety of symptoms on the part of the organs of the digestive system. In this case, the exact cause of these disorders is absent or not revealed. Such a diagnosis the doctor will be able to expose if the work of the intestine and stomach is broken, but there are no infectious, inflammatory diseases, oncopathology or anatomical bowel defects.

This pathology is classified based on which symptoms prevail. Isolate disorders with predominance of the emetic component, pain syndrome or defecation disorder. Irritable bowel syndrome is considered a separate form, which is included in the international classification of diseases.

Causes of functional disorders of the digestive tract

The reasons are the genetic predisposition and the impact of environmental factors. The congenital nature of functional disorders is confirmed by the fact that several families suffer from this pathology in several families. Postponed infections, stressful living conditions, depression, hard physical work - this all refers to the external causes of the disorders.

How are functional disorders of the digestive tract manifested?

The leading symptoms of these disorders are bloating, frequent constipation or vice versa, diarrhea, abdominal pain (usually in the near-pustular region). Unlike other diseases of the intestine, functional bloating is not accompanied by a visible increase in the abdomen. Sick people may complain of rumbling in the abdomen, flatulence, a feeling of inferior bowel emptying after defecation, tenesmus (painful urge to defecate).

Who makes the diagnosis, and what tests are prescribed?

In adults, the diagnosis of these conditions is performed by a gastroenterologist. In children this pathology is much more common, its diagnosis and treatment are performed by pediatricians. The diagnosis is based on the typical symptoms mentioned above. To make the diagnosis it is necessary that the total duration of digestive disorders is at least 3 months for the last year.

To put a functional disorder, the doctor must exclude another pathology, possibly causing such symptoms. To do this, he can appoint a vasodilator, a colonoscopy, a sigmoidoscopy, an overview abdominal X-ray, CT or MRI, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and a small pelvis. From the tests, blood tests for hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, and sugar level are prescribed. Study of feces for helminths and coprograms are mandatory analyzes.

Treatment and prevention

For functional gastrointestinal disorders, treatment and prevention are virtually synonymous. The main emphasis is on correcting the diet. The patient is recommended a balanced diet, including proteins, fats and carbohydrates in full, as well as vitamins and trace elements, normalizing the diet. The fractional intake of food in small portions contributes to the disappearance of symptoms. When constipation is prescribed laxatives, enemas, the diet includes products that have a laxative effect, it is recommended to drink abundantly.

When diarrhea is limited to the amount of rough food, prescribe stiffening drugs. Pain syndrome in functional disorders is eliminated by the use of spasmolytic (smooth muscle smoothing spasms) drugs.

Great attention is paid to improving the overall stress-resistance by changing the way of life. This means the rejection of bad habits (alcohol and smoking). Positive effect is observed after the course of psychotherapy.

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How to treat irritable bowel syndrome?

Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional disorder, because of which the stomach constantly hurts, while the person rarely goes to the toilet, the chair and its structure can change. Begin to disturb the pain under the ribs, in the abdomen, especially in the morning, disappear after the person has emptied. The chair is very rare no more than 3 times a week.

Causes of irritable bowel syndrome

The large intestine reacts to many factors, most often to stressful situations, some medicines, heavy food. Therefore, before you start treatment for the syndrome, you need to first review your diet, lifestyle and try to be as nervous as possible.

Irritable Bowel Symptoms

1. A person is worried about the sudden urge to go to the toilet.

2. Constantly there is incomplete emptying.

3. A man has to push hard to empty himself.

4. Disturbing strong flatulence.

5. In the abdomen appears raspiranie.

6. In the stool, you can see the mucus.

Please note that if the symptom of the irritated bowel is unlike other serious diseases, the blood in the stool is not contained, a person does not lose weight sharply, the liver and spleen do not increase, anemia, increased number of leukocytes, and ESR do not occur. If these signs appear, it is worthwhile to suspect a cancerous formation in the rectum, most often it develops in adulthood - after 50.

Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome

It is very important to distinguish this disease from others in time, for this it is absolutely necessary to be fully surveyed:

1. Conduct a general blood test.

2. To hand over the biochemical analysis of a blood, thus define a protein and electrolytes.

3. Up to three times you need to pass a stool test to make sure that there is no intestinal infection, parasites. worms.

4. It is very important to pass the test for dysbiosis.

5. Additionally, it is necessary to conduct tests to find out what level of hormones is contained in the thyroid gland.

6. It is also important to undergo irrigoscopy, colonoscopy, biopsy, ultrasound of the pelvis and abdominal cavity.

Complete diagnosis is very important for the timely detection of a malignant tumor in the large intestine, lymphoma, Crohn's disease, giportireoza or hyperthyroidism.

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

1. It is very important to consult a psychiatrist, because most often the disease appears due to severe stress, fear, anger, conflict situations. The doctor can prescribe antidepressants.

2. It is necessary to adhere to the proper daily routine, because because of lack of rest, the disease can worsen.

3. Constipation can be protected with the right habit - every morning after breakfast, you need to empty.

4. After waking up, you need to drink 200 ml of water, then do morning exercises, work on the stomach such exercises as a bicycle and scissors.

5. It is necessary to adhere to a diet, give up food that contains chemical dyes, food additives, preservatives, because they lead to significant stool disorders. For example, chewing gums in their composition have sorbitol, xylitol, and act as a laxative. Also it is necessary to forget for soda water, coffee, strong tea. alcoholic beverages. Often, those who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome do not tolerate milk and other dairy products.

6. In cases of constipation, it is necessary to use as much liquid as possible, not less than 1, 5 liters, to include in your diet foods that contain cellulose, if you tolerate fruit well, vegetables in fresh form then they should be eaten; in cases of flatulence, it is best to pay attention to boiled vegetables and fruit. It is very important that in the diet there are preparations containing microcellulose, bran.

7. To medicamental methods of treatment are antispasmodics, with the help of which you can get rid of painful sensations - ditsitel, duspatalin, papaverine, no-shpa, but it is very important in this case to consider that they can not be used when glaucoma. hypotension, adenoma.

8. If a long time disturbs diarrhea, you need to take special medications for diarrhea - smect, loperamide, black coal. It is also recommended to take decoctions based on herbs, for them use blueberries, bird cherry, serpentine, cobbler, alder. Spasmolytic action has a decoction of chamomile and mint.

9. To normalize the intestinal motility can be using the coordinate, motilium, dyufalaka. Often discharged from constipation buckthorn, hay, rhubarb, but these funds can only aggravate the pain and cause a strong spasm.

10. The meteorism can be cured with espumizana.

Nutrition for irritable bowel syndrome

Diet plays an important role in the treatment of the syndrome, so it is necessary to abandon the products provoking symptoms of irritated bowel - chocolate, fatty varieties fish, meat, you can not eat fried poultry skin, whole milk, various tasty confectionery creams, hard cheese, vegetable and butter, fatty whipped cream, margarine. To reduce diarrhea. П you need to eat often and in small quantities.

Thus, if you treat irritable bowel syndrome in time, you can protect yourself from serious complications. It is very important not only to remove symptoms, but also to eliminate the cause, which caused intestinal irritation. Most often it is provoked by stressful situations, so you need to worry as little as possible. In cases of fever, admixture of blood in the feces, severe pain in the abdomen, it is necessary to consult with the treating doctor. You can get rid of constipation with fiber and taking laxatives, but you can not do this often, it's best to complete a complete course of examination and treatment. In women, irritable bowel syndrome can aggravate with severe menstrual bleeding, while taking hormonal drugs.

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Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract constitute a group of heterogeneous (different in nature and origin) clinical states that show different symptoms on the part of the gastrointestinal tract and are not accompanied by structural, metabolic or systemic changes. In the absence of an organic basis of the disease, such disorders significantly reduce the quality of life of the patient.

For the diagnosis is necessary for the existence of symptoms for at least six months with their active manifestations within 3 months. It should also be remembered that the symptoms of ADHD can overlap and overlap each other in the presence of other diseases not related to the gastrointestinal tract.

Causes of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

There are 2 main reasons:

  • Genetic predisposition. FDRTCT is often hereditarily caused. Confirmation of this - the frequent family nature of violations. During the examinations, genetically transmitted features similar to all (or through the generation) of family members are found nervous and hormonal regulation of the motor capacity of the intestine, the properties of the receptors of the walls of the digestive tract and etc.
  • Mental and infectious sensitization. This includes the transferred acute intestinal infections, severe conditions of the social environment of a person (stress, lack of understanding on the part of loved ones, shyness, constant fears of different nature), physically hard work and etc.

Symptoms of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Depend on the type of functional disorder:

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (thick and thin) is a functional disorder characterized by the presence abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort and combined with violations of defecation and transit of intestinal content. For the diagnosis, symptoms should exist for at least 12 weeks over the past 12 months.
  • Functional bloating of the intestine. It is a repetitive feeling of bursting in the abdomen. It is not accompanied by a visible increase in the abdomen and other functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Expansive feeling should be observed at least 3 days a month for the last 3 months.
  • Functional constipation is a disease of the intestine of unknown etiology, manifested by constantly hindered, infrequent acts of defecation or a feeling of incomplete liberation from fecal masses. The basis of dysfunction is the violation of intestinal transit, the act of defecation or a combination of both.
  • Functional diarrhea is a chronic, relapsed syndrome characterized by a loose or unformed stool without pain and unpleasant sensations in the abdomen. It is often a symptom of IBS, but in the absence of other symptoms, it is considered as an independent disease.
  • Nonspecific functional disorders of the intestine - flatulence, rumbling, bloating or stretching, feeling inadequate emptying of the intestine, transfusion in the abdomen, imperative urges for defecation and excessive gas leakage.

Diagnosis of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Complete, comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination of the digestive system. In the absence of detection of organic and structural changes and the presence of symptoms of dysfunction, a diagnosis of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract is made.

Treatment of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Complex treatment includes dietary recommendations, psychotherapeutic measures, drug therapy, physiotherapy procedures.

General recommendations for constipation: the abolition of fixing drugs, products that promote constipation, the admission large amounts of liquid, food rich in ballast substances (bran), physical activity and elimination stress.

With the prevalence of diarrhea, the intake of coarse fiber in the body is limited and medication (imodium) is prescribed.

With the prevalence of pain, spasmolytics, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.

Prevention of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

Increased stress resistance, a positive outlook on life, a reduction in harmful effects on the digestive tract (alcohol, fatty, spicy food, overeating, unsystematic nutrition, etc.). Specific prophylaxis does not exist, since no direct causative factors are found.



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