What is intestinal atony and how to treat it
Atony of the intestine: symptoms and treatment
Atony of the intestine, what is it?
The wall of the intestine contains smooth muscles, the contractions of which ensure the movement of food from its upper divisions to the lower ones. This is the so-called peristalsis of the intestine. Normally, within 1 minute, the site of the small or large intestine performs 15-18 peristaltic movements. Atony of the intestine is a reduction or absence of peristalsis. It is often found in economically developed countries in people with a sedentary lifestyle and eating high-calorie food.
Atony is a functional state, and if the cause of its appearance is eliminated, the intestinal peristalsis resumes. There is no one cause of occurrence, it can manifest itself as an independent disease, and be a manifestation of other diseases of the body. There are several main causative factors leading to the development of intestinal atony:
- sedentary lifestyle - leads to a decrease in innervation of the muscles of the intestinal wall a
- malnutrition - high-calorie food with a low fiber content leads to the development of intestinal atony;
- constant stresses - the regulation of the intestine is carried out by the central nervous system, so excessive load on it can cause a failure in the innervation of the muscles of the walls of the intestine (and in other organs also);
- medicinal preparations (antispasmodics, morphine-like pain killers) - their long-term use in high doses leads to intestinal atony;
- dysbacteriosis of the intestine - a change in the balance of normal intestinal microflora leads to a violation of digestion and the development of toxins that reduce peristalsis;
- some intestinal infections;
- helminthiosis - parasitizing worms in the intestine occurs with the release of substances that reduce its peristalsis;
- use of drugs from the group of opiates - narcotic derivatives of poppy seeds get into the body, reduce tone and relax the muscles of all hollow organs;
- alcohol abuse - due to the toxic effects of alcohol on the nervous system, its normal functioning is disrupted;
- smoking - nicotine first increases intestinal peristalsis, but after a while it decreases;
- tumors of the intestine - malignant neoplasms in the intestine secrete toxins that affect the central and autonomic nervous system, in violation of their work;
- genetic predisposition - this condition can be inherited from parents to children.
The mechanism of development of atony of the intestine is to reduce the tone of the muscles of the intestinal walls, to reduce peristalsis and to move the food masses. This leads to a violation of digestion, the development of putrefactive processes in the intestines, the development of toxins that aggravate this condition.
Symptoms of atony of the intestine
The manifestations of this condition are associated primarily with a violation of digestion and stool delay:
- propensity to constipation - a person's chair is less often than 1 time per day;
- dense stool - the consistency of the stool becomes stony, the prolonged presence of feces in the large intestine leads to the fact that the water from them is completely absorbed;
- bloating - a manifestation of a violation of the cavitary and parietal digestion in the intestines with the release of gases;
- general weakness, bad sleep;
- pale, unnatural complexion;
- marble skin pattern;
- anemia (anemia) - a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin is due to the fact that iron is not absorbed by the body.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of this condition is simple, based on symptoms it is possible to suspect intestinal atony. More difficult is to identify the causes of the disease, for this, a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental diagnostics is carried out.
Treatment of intestinal atony
Before treating intestinal atony, regardless of its cause, an important exercise is the implementation of recommendations for proper nutrition and lifestyle:
- nutrition - the diet should be balanced in terms of calories (it should be reduced), preferably the use of plant foods rich in cellulose (cellulose itself is a stimulant of peristalsis), rejection of fatty, fried, smoked food and sweets;
- mode of eating - you should not allow large breaks in food, the last meal should be at least 2 hours before bedtime;
- struggle with a sedentary lifestyle - dynamic dose-related physical loads for half an hour a day significantly increase the tone and intestinal motility.
Drug treatment involves the use of laxatives and drugs, which increases the tone of the muscles of the intestinal wall and its peristalsis. These include:
- metoclopramide - enhances peristalsis, has antiemetic effect, is available in the form of injections and tablets;
- regulax - a herbal preparation of herbs Senna, has a mild laxative effect, promotes the excretion of feces from the large intestine;
- proserin - used in a hospital with inefficacy of other drugs;
- amiridin - a drug that improves neuromuscular transmission of the pulse, thereby increasing the intestinal peristalsis, is used only under the supervision of a doctor;
- pancreatin (or analogues) - an enzyme preparation that improves digestion of food;
- espumizan - a means of reducing bloating due to a weakening of the surface tension of gas bubbles.
At home, with intestinal atony, decoction of herbs of Senna is used. However, it is worth remembering that when symptoms of intestinal atony are better to seek advice from a gastroenterologist for a full examination and explanation of the causes of this condition.
Treatment of atony of the intestine is the most effective means
Treatment of atony of the intestine, first of all, reduces to diet compliance in the developmentfor this particular diet. Food should be taken in small portions.
Therapeutic diet for intestinal atony
An important inclusion in the daily diet are products that affect the scaling way:
- dairy products
- natural juices.
It is necessary to exclude from the diet products leading to the "fastening" of the intestine
coffee cakes and cakes
canned fish and meat
very rich broths
baking and white bread
If you tend to atonic constipation, you should eat in the diet such products, the composition of which includes a sufficient amount of fiber and fat. Due to these products, the intestinal peristalsis is increased, which allows changing the chemical composition of the large intestine.
What foods need to be included in the diet when treating intestinal atony?
- bread from bran
- low-fat fish
- lean meat
We exclude the causes leading to intestinal atony
- regular snacks instead of a normal full meal
- binge eating
- food in dry conditions
- low physical activity
- excessive drinking
- smoking in a very large amount
- fascination with various medications
- high mental load
- diseases of the endocrine system
- atherosclerosis of vessels in the intestine
In the therapy of atony of the intestine, it is also important to observe a clear schedule in taking food with subsequent emptying, which is facilitated by certain exercises aimed at ensuring the ease and regularity of intestinal emptying.
Exercises for the treatment of intestinal atony
An important role in the complex treatment of intestinal atony is played by physical exercises of a general strengthening nature.Exercises for intestinal atonyare aimed at strengthening and developing the muscles of the pelvic floor and abdominal press.
Consider the basic simple exercises for stimulation of the intestine. Each of them must be performed 10-12 times.
- Lying on their backs, they raise their legs and perform movements as if riding a bicycle. This allows you to strengthen the abdominal muscles, thighs, normalizes and speeds up the blood flow in the abdominal cavity.
- I lay on my back, and without tearing off the shoulder girdle, try to reach the floor with a foot bent at the knee, first to the right side of the body, then to the left. Exercise strengthens the muscles of the waist and back, stimulates the intestines.
- From the position, lying on the back, arms clasp their legs, bent at the knees and tightly press them to the stomach. They remain in this position for a few seconds, then return to their original position.
- They occupy position, kneeling, with an emphasis on elbows and palms, the head is lowered. Straightening hands, crouch down on the buttocks, on the right and left side alternately. Exercise helps to strengthen intestinal peristalsis and to remove gases.
- From the initial position, standing on deer, one by one they straighten and stretch their legs back, simultaneously bending in the back. Exercise strengthens the muscles of the buttocks and back and promotes the outflow of blood from the pelvic organs.
Massage of the abdomen with intestinal atony
- Hands begin to deep massage the abdominal muscles upwards from the right inguinal fold. Going to the navel, continue to massage the stomach, lowering to the left groin.
- Massaging the lower abdomen, capturing both skin folds, right and left, and moving them up and down. At the same time, the right hand moves down, and the left hand moves up, and vice versa.
The use of hirudotherapy in the treatment of intestinal atony
Streful constipation associated with malnutrition (atrophy) of the mucosa and a decrease in contractile activity of the colon are very common. Constipation is often on the background of chronic hemorrhoids.
Scheme of setting leeches for constipation
Zones of the prefix of leeches.
- Antero-abdominal zone - symmetrical points1and2, 16and 17 by two and four (respectively) transverse toes outside of the navel, the points18and19 on the middle line and point3three transverse toes below the navel.
- Lumbar zone - point 7 along the midline in the area of the 1st, 2nd thoracic vertebrae, two and four transverse fingers to the outside of it on both sides (points10and11, 8and12).
- Sacral zone - points13and14,located slightly lower and two transverse fingers outside of the lumbosacral joint, the point15on the top of the tailbone.
- Hepatic zone - the area of the right hypochondrium (points4, 5, 6).
Hirudotherapy is an auxiliary method of treating constipation, absolutely necessary in the presence of signs of venous fullness of the abdominal organs and in cases of senile constipation, as well as in the presence of constipation on the background of acute or chronic hemorrhoids.
Number of leeches:the procedure is usually 3-5 consoles.
Number and frequency of sessions. for 6 consoles per procedure every other day, then 2 times a week to 10-12 consoles.
Treatment of atony of the intestine video
Atony of the intestine in children and adults: let's start digestion in a new way
What is atonic constipation?
The intestine consists of smooth muscles, which in turn contract and relax. These actions help move food from the upper to the lower parts, a process called peristalsis. When atony intestines, peristalsis decreases, stool masses "get stuck which causes a difficult act of defecation, swelling.
Atonic constipation occurs as a result of intestinal atony. However, constipation can also be caused by mechanical obstructions such as polyps or tumors, adhesions and other formations in the large intestine. The disease affects all age groups: the elderly, children, pregnant women, etc.
Constipation leads to accumulation of slags in the intestine and internal intoxication of the body.
- unbalanced nutrition, as a result - obesity. Excessive consumption of fatty foods leads to violations of intestinal motility and a weakened muscle tone;
- low physical activity;
- frequent stresses will lead to a malfunction in the intestine, since the central nervous system controls the work of this organ;
- Smoking and alcoholic drinks depress the nervous system and lead to disturbances in the work of all organs.
Postoperative bowel dysfunction
After surgical interventions in the GI organs, postoperative atony may appear as a complication. Any malignant tumors in the intestine secrete toxins that disrupt the functioning of the vegetative and nervous systems.
Postpartum atony of the intestine
As a rule, postpartum constipation is associated with several causes:
- hormonal fluctuations;
- weakening and stretching of abdominal muscles;
- bowel displacement;
- impaired peristalsis;
- fear of divergence of sutures (as a result of Caesarean section) due to stress;
- psychological stress of a young mother;
- malnutrition or malnutrition.
- parasitic infection, the products of vital activity of helminths adversely affect the state of the walls of the intestine;
- microbial imbalance of the intestine (dysbiosis) leads to digestion, accumulation of toxins and weakening of peristalsis.
Long-term use of drugs that suppress muscle spasm, morphine-like painkillers will lead to intestinal atony.
There is a probability of transmission of the disease by inheritance.
Features of the disease in children and the elderly
In children, intestinal atony can occur on the background of psychological stress, for example, when parting with relatives or changing their place of residence. Insufficient water intake can lead to chronic constipation. Also, the nature of nutrition is important. For example, if you decide to change the usual formula for infant feeding on artificial feeding, its uneven intestine may react with a malfunction. Older people suffer from constipation due to sedentary lifestyle, unbalanced diet, taking medications (hypnotics, painkillers), as well as postoperative operations.
Symptoms of the disease
The main indicator of the presence of the disease is a violation of food processing in the gastrointestinal tract, and as a consequence - constipation (that is, no defecation for more than 3 days). Also atony of the intestine is accompanied by concomitant symptoms:
- heaviness in the abdomen, pain, swelling;
- decreased physical activity, weakness;
- lack of appetite;
- anemia, since most of the iron entering the body is not absorbed;
- dense stool, because of the long presence of feces in the large intestine, which lose all the water there.
Diagnosis consists in finding and analyzing the causes that cause the appearance of the disease. At the reception the doctor will determine the features of nutrition, lifestyle, habits, heredity and many other factors. This will depend on the subsequent treatment.It will be necessary to pass such laboratory tests as feces analysis, bacteriological culture. From instrumental studies appoint a colonoscopy (photography of the intestinal areas being examined) or irrigoscopy (X-ray examination of the large intestine), which will establish the presence of polyps, tumors.
If there is a suspicion of oncology, a biopsy specimen is taken additionally during a colonoscopy.
Traditional laxatives can not eliminate the cause of disruption of the intestine, they will only remove the symptoms.
Table: drugs with intestinal atony
Sources: http://www.infmedserv.ru/stati/atoniya-kishechnika-simptomy-i-lechenie, http://www.metody-lechenija.ru/lechenie-atonii-kishechnika-samye-effektivnye-sredstva/, http://med-atlas.ru/vnutrennie-organy/atoniya-kishechnika-u-detey-i-vzroslyih-zapustim.html
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