Dermatitis: symptoms and treatment in children

When a doctor diagnosed dermatitis, treating this pathology in children is a long process, requiring patience and a delicate approach. The complex treatment of allergic diseases include antihistamines, corticosteroids, sedatives, antibacterial and other drugs, depending on the form of the disease and the localization of the inflammatory process.

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Content

  • 1Etiology of the disease
  • 2How to suspect the presence of the disease?
  • 3Methods of detection
  • 4Tactics of treatment
  • 5Topical therapy and traditional medicine
  • 6Preventive measures

Etiology of the disease

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What is children's dermatitis? This is a common allergic disease, often diagnosed in pediatric practice. Every year, the statistics of the detected inflammatory-allergic reactions of the skin is rapidly increasing. Today, dermatitis accounts for up to 50% of the diseases with which children of different ages meet as they grow up.

The impact of biological, chemical and physical factors provokes the development of the disease in the immature immune system of the child. In most cases, dermatitis occurs in children under one year. The explanation for this phenomenon is the hereditary factor, the immaturity of the skin, the immune, digestive, endocrine and nervous system, as well as the negative impact of the environment.

Dermatitis in children, its treatment, sometimes synonymous with the term "children's eczema "diathesis." It is not possible to predetermine the outcome of the disease in advance. Beginning at an early age, the disease can completely come to naught or acquire a recurring course until adolescence, and perhaps remain for life.

Dermatitis in a child is rarely an isolated inflammatory process. Usually it proceeds against a background of other diseases. He often accompanies: anemia, diabetes, gastroenterocolitis, bronchial asthma and other systemic diseases.

How to suspect the presence of the disease?

Clinical manifestations of skin dermatitis depend on the age of the child and the features of the course of the disease at different stages of life. In the first half of the year, the presence of erythema on the cheeks, microvesicular and serous capsules, erosion is observed. Inflamed cheeks in newborns blush, swell, flake. Of the small blood vessels located in the source of inflammation, exudative fluid may flow out, causing unbearable pain due to combing the wound surface.

Such a process is often present on the chin, ears, neck. On the scalp formed a scaly layer of epithelium. Skin dermatitis with the appearance of spots, covered with crusts, often appears in infants.

Pathological changes are observed on the cheeks, arms, legs, buttocks and in the genital area. Dermatitis, if the child is 4 months old or older, is quite specific.

In children 1 years, mucous membranes of the respiratory tract suffer (bronchial asthma appears). The pathological process is present in the digestive system (frequent diarrhea and general phenomena of dyspepsia due to inadequate activity of enzymes). Violation observed in the functioning of the genitourinary sphere (inflammation of the foreskin, vulva).

Closer to 3 years, the skin in the place of the lesion becomes denser, flaky, noticeably the increase in the cutaneous pattern. Changes are pronounced in the neck, elbows, popliteal pits (dermatitis on the legs).

Children of younger preschool age have more dermatitis on their legs and arms (wrists). Often diagnosed as a neurodermatitis, ichthyosis.

In adolescence, the inflammatory-allergic reaction manifests itself in the form of juvenile palmar-plantar dermatosis. Relapses of dermatitis on the legs of a child are practically absent in the summer. Winter is the period of the most frequent exacerbation of dermatitis.

Determine the inflammatory-allergic reactions in the body by clearly pronounced clinical symptoms:

  • hyperemia of affected areas;
  • peeling and itching of different intensity;
  • discharge of exudative fluid from the wound surface;
  • presence of pustules, vesicles filled with liquid contents;
  • there are eruptions on the lips, eyelids on the nasal mucosa;
  • pronounced tear;
  • there are discharge from the nose (a frequent sign);
  • extensive areas of drainage infiltrates (with significant damage);
  • symmetry of affected areas;
  • increased irritability;
  • disturbance of sleep and general condition.

Methods of detection

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To diagnose allergies, you will not only need to examine the skin, but also to collect anamnesis, conduct laboratory and instrumental methods for examining the skin and blood.

Allergic factor suggests the detection of elevated levels of specific allergenic indices in the blood. Present in the analyzes, eosinophilia and positive allergic tests indicate the available dermatitis in children.

In the examination, an important step is to determine the cause of the pathological changes in the epidermis and the form of dermatitis. With some immunodeficiency diseases (skin lymphoma, eczema, pink lichen), as well as with a reduced content of immunoglobulins in the body, the symptoms of the disease are very similar.

Accession of pathogenic flora requires bacteriological examination of the material (smears). To exclude the possibility of infection with pathogenic fungi, scraping should be performed. For the procedure take the material with a smooth skin.

As an additional survey, diagnose other areas:

  1. Study of feces for dysbiosis, helminthic invasion. Bacteriological examination of smears is indicated when infected with pathogenic microorganisms.
  2. Carrying out a coprogram.
  3. Ultrasound diagnosis of abdominal organs. Usually, the liver is enlarged, dyskinesia of the bile ducts is observed.
  4. Biopsy of affected areas of the skin and mucous membranes.

Dermatitis, its symptoms and treatment in children, require the advice of several specialists. Dermatitis requires complex examination and treatment by specialists of different profiles.

Diagnosis pathology will help the following doctors:

  • pediatrician;
  • dermatologist (allergist);
  • nutritionist;
  • endocrinologist;
  • gastroenterologist;
  • neuropsychiatrist.
A specialist of a narrow profile, based on experience, will help to diagnose other diseases occurring in the body, possibly in a latent form, as well as complications caused by the disease.

Tactics of treatment

Dermatitis in children, treatment, provides for complex therapy.

It may include the following drugs:

  • antihistamines;
  • sedative;
  • glucocorticoid;
  • enzymatic;
  • enterosorbents;
  • antibacterial;
  • antiviral;
  • antifungal;
  • antiseptic;
  • probiotics.

The basis of treatment is antihistamines, in combination with sedatives (with pronounced itching and manifestations of urticaria). Antihistamines of the second generation are shown, which have less side effects (with mild sedative effect).

Depending on the age, the drugs are taken in the form of drops, syrup, tablets. Minor manifestations of dermatitis are treated with ointments and creams for external use. They are used to eliminate hyperemia, itching, with cracks and erosive processes. Preparations based on biologically active floralinase have high regenerative characteristics.

When attaching pathogenic flora, antibacterial drugs are used externally. Most drugs for the treatment of dermatitis are combined, provide for a wide range of effects. With pronounced clinical manifestations in complex therapy include systemic antibiotics. In uncomplicated cases, you can limit the use of local antiseptics.

Antiviral therapy is indicated in herpetic lesions. With fungal - prescribe antifungal drugs (for local and systemic effects). Concomitant violations of the gastrointestinal tract are eliminated by taking enzyme preparations. Purify the body of toxins will help sorbents and probiotics.

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The use of glucocorticoid agents is indicated in severe cases under the strict supervision of the attending physician.

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Any hormonal agent has a number of side effects and contraindications.

The doctor develops an individual scheme for the use of glucocorticoid drugs in short courses (sometimes in combination with a baby cream). Only an expert should decide how to cure dermatitis without harm to health.

Dermatitis in children in most cases is treated out-patient, if the symptoms of the disease are minor. Symptoms and treatment of dermatitis in the acute stage with a pronounced allergic reaction in children requires hospitalization.

Topical therapy and traditional medicine

This technique is aimed at restoring the barrier properties of the epithelium. It eliminates dermatitis in children, its symptoms (inflammatory processes, dryness, hyperemia of affected areas).

Therapy includes:

  • inductotherapy;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • reflexotherapy;
  • plasmapheresis;
  • light therapy.

Phytocompositions, which possess anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and natural antiseptic characteristics, easily eliminate dermatitis in children. Various herbal infusions, used in complex treatment, can eliminate the phenomena of discomfort.

The following plants have therapeutic effect:

  • Birch buds;
  • Oak bark;
  • chamomile;
  • succession;
  • sage;
  • aloe juice;
  • yarrow;
  • linden flowers;
  • leaf plantain.

For the preparation of infusion 2 tbsp. Spoons of raw materials are brewed in 1 liter of water. Insist for 2 hours. Infusion can be taken or used to impregnate gauze applications.

Preventive measures

Depending on the cause of the appearance of pathological changes in the skin, the determining factor in the treatment of dermatitis in children is the elimination of the underlying cause (allergen).

If this is not possible (hereditary factor), then the following preventive measures should be observed:

  1. Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and antiseptics. The lack of hygiene norms promotes the appearance of diaper dermatitis in newborns.
  2. Rational use of medicines. Hormonal, antibacterial, antifungal agents require confirmation of the rationality of their use.
  3. Balanced diet. Eliminate products containing potential allergens.
  4. Timely treatment of viral and fungal diseases.
  5. Compliance with vaccination rules.
  6. Elimination of stressful situations.

Any medicine is prescribed only by a doctor, taking into account the medical history, general condition and individual characteristics of the organism. Self-medication in pediatrics is unacceptable. Timely detected disease increases the chances of recovery and the absence of relapse of the disease in the future.

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