Basic and atypical lichen species in humans
Currently, different types of lichen are known in humans. Under this name falls a whole list of skin diseases with different causes and manifestations. The ailment, in addition to serious aesthetic problems, brings to the patient and a lot of unpleasant physical sensations. Lishay and its different types can accompany inflammatory processes that affect internal organs or skin from the outside. Often the pathology is accompanied by severe itching, rashes, impaired skin pigmentation, abundant hair loss..
Lishay has different kinds. Each of them has its own reasons, specific symptoms and ways of treatment. It is almost impossible to independently determine the type of disease.
- 1Main reasons
- 2The main types of pathology
- 3Atypical species of lichen
- 4Methods of struggle and prevention
Most of the lichens are extremely contagious. One of the main pathogens of mycosis is microscopic fungi that are difficult to treat.
They multiply rapidly and can be:
- anthropophilic - transmitted by contact with a sick person or objects of use;
- zooantropophilic - affecting a person (mostly children) after contacting stray dogs or cats;
- Geophysical - infecting the skin in contact with the soil in which they multiply and remain for a long time.
Usual antiseptics to destroy a mycotic infection is impossible. It is necessary to use antifungal drugs.
In some cases, the pathology is viral (skin lesions of the herpes group virus) and develops against the background of a decrease in the protective functions of the body due to stress or after the transfer of heavy diseases. In addition, physicians are aware of other varieties of lichen with their own etiology, falling under a different classification (eczema, seborrhea).
The main types of pathologyLishay Zhibera (pink). The disease is contagious, can easily be transmitted by close contact or through household items (scouring, clothes, dishes, combs). Most often diagnosed in adults who visit various places of public use (swimming pools, baths), but children can also get sick. It is localized mainly on the chest, in the groin, on the stomach. Less often the legs, shoulders, face are affected.
Some time after infection, the following symptoms appear:
- a large stain is formed (it is called the maternal plaque), which has a bright coloration, covered with scales;
- Near the maternal plaque, pink spots of smaller size appear;
- lymph nodes are enlarged;
- the patient experiences a weakness accompanied by a low-grade fever.
The course of the disease is long, usually symptoms are observed for several months. Determine the exact diagnosis can only a dermatologist on the basis of tests.
Shingles. The causative agent of this pathology is the herpes simplex virus, which causes varicella. The child can recover from shingles at an early age and in mild form. In adults, there is a more severe course of the disease, often accompanied by serious complications.
The pathogen spreads through the spinal nerve nodes, which increases the risk of a dangerous complication of this ailment - serious malfunctioning of the nervous system.
The disease is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- the appearance on the skin of a multitude of bubbles filled with liquid contents;
- after a while, the bubbles begin to burst, forming a bust;
- the patient suffers from severe itching and pain;
- possibly an increase in body temperature.
Pain sensations are noted in the chest area and can disturb the patient for a month. Their intensity depends on the severity of the disease. Dangerous complications include a virus infection of the eyes, which can lead to loss of vision. That is why it is so important to treat a herpetic infection in a timely manner.
Ringworm (trichophytosis). The most common pathology. Refers to the most infectious species of lichen. The causative agent is a fungal infection. The hairy part of the head is affected, but sometimes the disease is localized on the skin of the trunk or extremities. And the nail plates can suffer.
The main transmission path is contact with infected animals. The disease manifests itself in the form of small blurry spots with a pink tinge.
- presence of mild itching;
- there is a slight increase in temperature;
- enlargement of lymph nodes.
Without treatment, the spots increase in size, the skin begins to peel off strongly, and the hair becomes brittle and falls out. In the future, the transition of the disease to a chronic form with the appearance of pus. This form of lichen in children is diagnosed more often than in adults.Multicolored lichen (porubic). It is called because of the characteristic manifestation of the disease: the formation of spots on the skin of gray, brown or yellow shades. The size and shape of the plaques can be different.
The causative agent is a yeast-like fungus that disrupts the pigmentation of the skin due to the inhibition of melanocytes. Stains can eventually merge into one large formation.
The disease is not contagious. Her development is promoted by hormonal failures or problems with the immune system. Often, pathology is diagnosed in pregnant women or patients with diabetes mellitus. The likelihood of this deprivation in children is quite low.
The greatest spread of the disease is observed in countries with a hot and humid climate. Children are less exposed to it. The main symptoms include a violation of the normal color of the skin and its strong peeling.
Flat red lichen. The disease is not contagious. It is considered a seasonal disease, manifested with a decrease in the body's defenses or against a background of strong allergic reactions.
It differs by the appearance of spots of red color. A lot of this depriving types of plaques (they can take the form of rings, ulcers, warts). It can affect almost any area of the skin, nail plates and mucous membranes. The patient experiences severe itching.
The exact causes are not yet established. It is assumed that the development of the disease leads to an allergic predisposition of the patient against a background of a sharp decrease in immunity, for example, because of stress or heavy physical exertion. The most common sufferers are women or people with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Usually in a person, the treatment of red lichen lasts several weeks.
Atypical species of lichen. Eczema. Another type of lichen. The disease causes serious dysfunction of the endocrine system, getting into the body of an infection, disturbances in the work of the peripheral nervous system or problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Often diagnosed in patients working in the chemical or pharmaceutical industry, which suggests another reason for the emergence of pathology - allergic. There are known cases of this deprivation in children at an early age.
The folds of the skin are most often affected. Foci of the disease are symmetrical.
The disease manifests itself as:
- reddish spots symmetrically arranged along the body;
- small bubbles, which, bursting, cover the skin with a crust;
- edema of the affected area.
It is possible to attach a secondary bacterial infection, which can seriously worsen the patient's condition.
Psoriasis. The disease is also called scaly lichen. The disease is associated with severe impairment of the immune system and is not suitable for others.
As a rule, this type is manifested by depriving any part of the body in the form of red spots covered with white scales. In very rare cases, patients with scaly lichen complain of itching, while the skin is always scaly.
A genetic predisposition to the disease is characteristic. It accompanies a person throughout his life, and the periods of exacerbation change with long periods of remission. Much here depends on the lifestyle of a person and the general state of his health.
Methods of struggle and preventionOnly experienced specialists know how to deprive a person. Therapy is completely dependent on the reasons that caused it. Not all types of pathology require compulsory treatment. With fungal skin lesions, before determining the way of fighting, establish a pathogen. After this, a certain antimycotic preparation is administered. Tinea is treated with various antiviral drugs against the background of taking immunostimulating drugs.
To facilitate the general condition, the patient is prescribed symptomatic therapy. For this, the dermatologist can use the whole arsenal of modern medicines. He is prescribed various painkillers, sedatives and antihistamines, which help cope with allergic reactions.
It shows the use of various ointments and creams to restore damaged skin. The duration of treatment is determined by the doctor, depending on how successfully the chosen therapeutic program will suppress the disease.
What are the ways of prevention?
First of all, great attention should be given to the following points:
- observance of personal hygiene;
- healthy lifestyle;
- strengthening of immunity.
To protect against allergic lichen, contact with irritant substances should be avoided. For the prevention of hair loss in children they must be protected from homeless animals. As a detergent is better to use shampoos and gels, made on the basis of natural ingredients..