Because of what there is a melanoma of a skin and whether it is possible to consult with it or her

Patients who are diagnosed with skin melanoma in a particular area are at great risk. This malignant tumor, which appears as a result of the influence of negative factors on melanocytes, is capable of rapidly progressing. If you run a pathological process, the patient faces death. Therefore, constant monitoring of the condition of pigmented lesions on the body will enable us to detect undesirable changes in time.

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Content

  • 1The concept of melanoma and its variety
  • 2Etiology
  • 3Clinical manifestations of pathology and its stages
  • 4Features of diagnosis and treatment process

The concept of melanoma and its variety

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Those who are owners of many birthmarks on the body, for certain will be interested in the question: what is skin melanoma? Not everyone knows about melanoma, in particular, about how much danger it presents to the body and how quickly melanoma develops.

Melanoma (in another, melanoblastoma) is the result of the mutation of pigment cells, and the age of the patient can be anything. Often, melanoma of the back, lower extremities and skin of the face is diagnosed. The disease is also capable of affecting the skin on the chest and other areas of the body.

For example, on the back and torso often occurs disseminated melanoma. A tumor developing on the skin of the back can be extremely negatively reflected on the spine, giving it metastases. In addition, the location of the tumor can be the eyes, mucous membranes of the mouth, rectum, vagina.

If melanoma has been identified, it should be remembered that this is a pathological disorder that can rapidly sprout deep into the skin and metastasize to lymph nodes or internal organs. For this reason melanoblastoma is considered as a very aggressive malignant neoplasm of the skin, which significantly undermines health.

Usually melanoma has an epithelioid type of cells, but there are also spindle-shaped ones. If the formation has arisen from the nevus, pigmentary melanoma is diagnosed.

There is a classification of melanoma, providing for the presence of several types of skin tumors, and their formation can occur in the phase of horizontal (radial) or vertical growth.

Pathological education can be:

  1. Surface-spreading. Most often, the surface-spreading melanoma is formed in the fair sex. Practically 50% of patients have metastases, therefore, superficial melanoma has rather unfavorable prognosis.

A tumor of brown, black or blue color is formed on a healthy area of ​​the skin or on a nevus. Surface-spreading melanoma is recognized by pigmented formation, which is slightly elevated above the skin, has an irregular shape and uneven edges. In the central part of the growth there may be inclusions of another color. Over time, the tumor becomes denser, a plaque appears, and then a node with ulcers on the surface. Even with the slightest trauma, the surface-spreading melanoma secretes a yellow liquid with an admixture of blood.

  1. Nodal. Tumor formation grows much faster than other types of melanoma. On average, its development takes from 6 to 18 months. Because of the rapid flow of melanoma, the prognosis is most unfavorable. Half of the patients die after the appearance of the nodal form in the shortest period.

The pathology is characterized by a phase of vertical growth. The skin covering the knot becomes thin in a short period of time, so melanoma is constantly injured, which leads to the release of blood. As far as the formation of ulcers on the node, a sap may appear.

The color of the node is brown, black or bluish. In the absence of pigment, the tumor acquires a pinkish or bright red color.

  1. Lentiginous. A variant is also called a malignant lentigo or a freckle of Hutchinson. The usual place of localization is the age-old pigment spot or nevus. There is a tendency of lentiginous formation to appear on those parts of the skin that are most often affected by ultraviolet radiation. There may be melanoma on the face, in the area of ​​the auricle, neck and hands.
Lentiginous melanoma of the skin develops rather slowly, and often the symptoms of the last stage appear in almost 30 years. This type of cancer is considered the most favorable, since metastases are rare. In some patients, education is able to resolve.
  1. Acryl-lentiginous. As practice shows, the acral melanoma forms on the dark skin. Localization of the tumor - palms, intimate area, feet, eyelids, nail bed. Neoplasm is rapidly developing and rapidly metastasizing. Therefore, when melanoma arises, the survival prognosis is significantly reduced.

First, the course of the disease is accompanied by the formation of a brown spot, which is subsequently covered with ulceration. Melanoma on the leg, formed under the thumbnail, acquires a crimson or bluish-red color and eventually destroys the nail plate. The process is accompanied by secretions of a yellowish liquid. Subungual melanoma also often infects the thumb on the arm.

  1. Spindle cell. Such skin formation has spindle-shaped cells that intertwine with each other by cytoplasmic processes, thus creating unique bundles. If the patient has a spindle-cell melanoma, this means that there is a high risk of death. Pathology can manifest itself in a short period of time, and it is often difficult to diagnose it.
  2. Non-pigmented. The rarest type of tumor, which has no color due to the destruction of melanin. Its color may be pinkish or corpulent.

Etiology

Many factors can provoke skin cancer, a type of which is melanoma. Its appearance is caused by malignancy of melanocytes as a result of the appearance of defects in their DNA molecules.

Malignant melanoma is caused by:

  1. Influence of ultraviolet. The factor is considered the most common. The formation of a tumor depends on the duration of the exposure, and on the intensity of the radiation. Melanoma, like skin cancer, often affects people who usually spend time indoors, and during the holidays prefer to sunbathe. Of great importance in the appearance of the tumor is the amount of sunburn that a person received at an early age.
  2. The presence of white skin. With melanin deficiency, the skin becomes defenseless before the sun, which causes the corresponding symptoms.
  3. Genetic predisposition. The disease can be transmitted to the offspring. In the risk zone are people who have the closest suffer from pathology. Heredity is expressed in the absence of a factor that helps suppress the growth of malignant cells, or its insufficiency. It is noted that predisposition to pathology is inherited, especially if the mother suffers from melanoma. Also, inheritance is not ruled out in the presence of a tumor in 2 or more people in the genus. It is worthwhile to be cautious if the violation was already there and it was managed to heal.
  4. By the age. The more a person grows older, the more he risks. The body is constantly exposed to negative factors (ultraviolet, radiation and other). If these factors are too many, suitable conditions for the development of melanocyte mutation are created.
  5. Sexual accessory. In men, melanoma of the skin of the back is more common. In women, melanoma ranks second after a disease such as cervical cancer. First and foremost, women suffer from long-term use of contraceptives, as well as pregnant and lactating women.
  6. Decreased immunity. If the immune system functions normally, it is able to recognize and destroy the altered cells on time. Therefore, in patients who are medically reduced the activity of the immune system, melanoma is often formed.
  7. Presence on the skin of a benign neoplasm is a nevus. His rebirth can lead to trauma or excessive exposure to direct sunlight.
  8. Precancerous skin condition. This refers to the presence of melanosis Dyubrya, because of which melanoma is often located on the lip, and pigmentary xeroderma.
  9. Features of a nutritious diet. The risk of getting cancer increases with the use of a large amount of fats and proteins, as well as when there is a shortage of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Changes in melanocytes occur because of a metabolic disorder.

Scientists managed to determine that the relationship between drinks with caffeine and the symptoms of a beginning disease is absent.

Clinical manifestations of pathology and its stages

. How to recognize the melanoma symptoms present in order to seek help from doctors in time? Manifestations of the disease, in particular if it is hereditary, are formed depending on what kind of neoplasm is present and at what stage of development it is.

How does melanoma look like? It has the form of a spot, knot or plaque. Initially, it manifests itself in the form of a small formation, and it arises not only from a mole, but also in a healthy cutaneous area. Significant danger is melanoma on the head, because it is not always possible to detect a new growth under the hair.

It is important as soon as possible to notice the first signs of melanoma in order to do everything necessary to prevent its further progression.

The fact that melanoma appears will indicate the following symptoms:

  • the nevus begins to change rapidly in size;
  • a benign mole can lose color or darken, becoming often black;
  • in the affected area, melanoma symptoms are noted in the form of burning, tingling and itching, which indicates that cell division begins;
  • around the speck there is an inflamed rim;
  • The surface of the nevus is ulcerated and liquid drains from it;
  • next to education, others are formed, which is the result of metastasis;
  • the birthmark becomes denser, its borders become uneven;
  • from the surface of the mole the skin pattern disappears and the hairs growing from the nevus fall out.

When melanoma of the skin arises, its stage significantly influences the further predictions of life.

In medicine, it is common to distinguish the following stages of melanoma:

  • zero (the initial stage of melanoma) - malignant cells are located only in the epidermal layer;
  • the first - there is a tumor with a millimeter thickness and ulcers on the surface (if melanoma reaches 2 mm in diameter, but there are no ulcers, it is also referred to this stage);
  • the second - the neoplasm has ulcers, growing to 2 mm in thickness, or may not have ulceration, but the dimensions vary from 2 to 4 mm;
  • the third - a tumor metastasizes into a lymph node;
  • the fourth - metastases affect not only the lymph nodes, but also distant skin areas and internal organs (liver, brain, bones and others).

Most patients who have melanoma are cured regardless of their cause, if the disease is in the first two stages. Melanoma is most easily eliminated if it has an initial stage. However, some types of tumors at an early stage are difficult to identify. Therefore, people who have melanoma is not excluded, should understand what pathology is dangerous and what life forecast is expected.

Features of diagnosis and treatment process

Diagnosis of melanoma is carried out with the help of:

  1. Interrogation of the patient about the existing symptoms and examination of the body for the detection of suspicious pigmented formations. In some species of the tumor it is difficult to visually confirm the pathology, therefore, instrumental techniques are absolutely necessary.
  2. Analyzes of blood and urine. To be diagnosed with melanoma, you will need a blood test from your finger and vein.
  3. Dermatoscopy. In this case, when melanoma is present, diagnostics are performed using a special device. Thanks to such a device, the doctor performs a test, which will enable him to distinguish malignant from benign and establish how far the tumor has grown.
  4. Ultrasound, CT, MRI and X-ray, which will provide information about the stage of melanoma.
  5. Biopsies. It is carried out using anesthesia. Such a diagnosis, by which the presence of skin melanoma is determined, can be of several kinds. In particular, a piece of pigment formation is taken for the study.
Is melanoma treated and how? After the diagnosis, surgical treatment is indicated. During the operation, melanoma is removed along with a number of healthy tissues. This is necessary to prevent further spread of metastases. If the formation is localized on the toes, the removal of melanoma involves amputation.
If the patient is diagnosed with melanoma, radiotherapy sessions are performed before surgical treatment. Radiation exposure will also be required after surgical manipulation to prevent a possible relapse of the disease.

Removal of stage 1 and 2 melanoma by surgery is often the only solution, and to prevent possible negative consequences, operated on should regularly refer to the doctor.

Also resorted to:

  • chemotherapy;
  • immunotherapy;
  • treatment with hormonal means.

With the help of chemotherapy medics are trying to suppress the growth and division of cells.

Treatment of skin melanoma is carried out using:

  • Cisplastin;
  • Lomustine;
  • Vincristine;
  • Vinorelbine.

When there was a melanoma, it is possible to treat only the listed drugs or they are combined with other medicines. Everything will depend on the degree of the disease.

If certain conditions are created, the immune system is able to independently eliminate cancer cells, thereby stopping the course of pathology. Thus, melanoma regression will occur.

To help the patient, after diagnosing a dangerous disorder, the doctor can prescribe such medications for the treatment of melanoma, such as:

  • Interferon-alpha;
  • Reaferon;
  • Ipilimumab.

With proper immunotherapy, even in the last stages, there may be positive changes in the patient's condition. It is proved that there is more chance for recovery if patients were successfully treated with immunotherapy.

Often, to suppress the growth of malignant cells, hormonal drugs are prescribed. In particular, Tamoxifen pills help cure cancer. But, despite the positive results, which sometimes lead to such treatment, some doctors use hormonal drugs for cancer disease is considered inappropriate.

With the development of stage 4, the patient's cure is almost impossible. Usually the patient dies throughout the year. Some manage to live for another five years. To improve the condition, chemotherapy and drugs that strengthen immunity are used.

Of great importance is the diet with melanoma of the skin. In the diet, you must include enough foods that contain protein.

But at the same time nutrition with skin melanoma provides for the restriction of dishes in which there are:

  • animal fats;
  • nutritional supplements;
  • flavors.

Prevention of melanoma deserves attention. Doctors recommend avoiding the influence of factors, due to which melanocyte degeneration and deterioration of well-being are possible.

How many live with the melanoma of the skin? Life expectancy depends on the degree of pathology, the presence of metastases and the number of organs that are involved in the process. Due to the removal of the tumor the patient will still live about 5 years. The later a person comes to a doctor, the fewer years will remain.

Is the patient contagious with melanoma? Doctors calmed: the disease can only be transmitted by inheritance. Also they constantly remind that when there are suspicions on tumor development, immediately contact the doctors. If you turn in time, you can save your own life.

The danger of melanoma is that it can quickly progress. If you miss the initial manifestations, coping with the pathology will be more difficult. Only thanks to timely treatment, the patient will be able to prolong his life for several more years.

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