Lymphocytes in the blood test
The human immune system is an extremely complex mechanism that is designed to withstand bacteriological, viral, tumor, and other disease cells that have entered the body. The main protective factor against the introduction of foreign agents in the blood are leukocytes. A special place in the leukocyte "family" is occupied by lymphocytes - these are blood cells that are able to penetrate various tissues and lesions to fight infection. They are the first to give a signal to the brain when foreign bodies are detected in the body, after which the complex and long-lasting process of controlling infected cells is activated.
- What are lymphocytes responsible for?
- The rate of lymphocytes in the blood
- Why does the level of lymphocytes change? Why is this dangerous?
- Causes of Lymphocytopenia
- What else does an
blood test say that lymphocytes are the most important component of the immune system? Any deviations from the norm can mean serious health problems. But, there are situations when a decrease or increase in the level of protective cells is not a pathology, and this is due to certain physiological processes. What are lymphocytes in the blood test, what should be a normal indicator and what provokes a deviation from the norm, we will examine in more detail.
lymphocytes are responsible Lymphocytes are rightly considered to be one of the main links in the protective mechanism of the body, because their task is to recognize “their own” from “someone else's” in time and give a reaction if pathological cells are detected. In humans, lymphocytes are produced by the bone marrow and solve a number of important tasks, such as:
- synthesis of special antibodies to resist infections;
- destruction of pathogenic cells;
- elimination of their own defective cells or mutants;
- for cuts, injuries and bruises, lymphocytes instantly find themselves at the scene of the "incident" to prevent unwanted guests, microbes and bacteria from penetrating through the wound.
To make it clearer how the whole immune process takes place, we will take a closer look at the types of lymphocytes and their functions.
B-lymphocytes. Almost 20% of all lymphocytes are converted to the lymphocytic group B, mainly in the lymph nodes. It must be assumed that this group is the most important for our immune system, because once these protective cells come into contact with disease-causing organisms, they later remember the “alien” agent and adapt to its elimination. Therefore, thanks to B-lymphocytes, a person forms an immunity to previously suffered diseases.
T-lymphocytes. Formed in the thymus, and have 3 more subspecies, each of which has its own area of responsibility. For example, T-killers are responsible for the destruction and splitting of cells infected with viruses or other intracellular parasites. T-helpers are on the help of T-killers, while highlighting substances that help in the fight against "enemies".And, T-suppressors regulate the power and intensity of the immune response to prevent the destruction of healthy cells.
NK lymphocytes. This subgroup is the smallest, about 5-10% of the total count. These cells are responsible for the elimination of their cells from the body, if they have a hotbed of infection. Such lymphocytes are actively fighting cancer cells.
All types of lymphocytes are formed from the stem cell, in the bone marrow, thymus, part in the lymph nodes and spleen. They all share a common cause: to recognize the enemy, to detain him and destroy.to contents ↑
Norm of lymphocytes in blood
Since lymphocytes are a link in a leukocyte series, their percentage ratio to the total number of leukocytes is recorded in a blood test. Sometimes, the parameter designation is used in absolute values, that is, the number of cells per 1 liter of blood.
The rate of lymphocytes in the blood of men and women is practically the same, ranging from 18 to 40%, or in absolute values of 1.0 to 4.5 * 109 / l. However, in the fair sex, a slight increase in level is allowed for physiological reasons, such as: monthly bleeding, carrying a child. Thus, the lymphocytes rate in women can be up to 50%, this situation is not considered as a pathology. For the reasons for abnormal blood tests in women, see http: //vseproanalizy.ru/. Analizyi-krovi /limfotsityi/ limfotsityi-u-zhenshhin.html
Besides sex, age and physiological reasons, the level of lymphocytes may change due to malnutritionhuman emotional instability, and the favorable external influences. For example, lymphocytes and their rate in men working in hazardous chemical production may deviate by more than 15%.
The regulatory values of lymphocytes in children are significantly different from the normal values in adults, and the number of protective cells changes as the child grows older.
The established level of lymphocytes for children has a more extensive framework from 30 to 70%.to contents ↑
Why there is a deviation of the level of lymphocytes. Why is this dangerous?
Any deviation from the norm upwards or downwards will almost always signal a serious change in the body.
A condition in which an increase in lymphocytes is recorded in a blood test is called lymphocytosis. Often occurs in people with obstructed metabolism, with endocrine diseases, prone to allergic reactions or suffering from bronchial asthma. In addition, lymphocytosis often occurs on the background of various infectious diseases, including venereal diseases, typhoid fever, whooping cough, and others. When analyzing a situation, other components of the leukocyte series must be taken into account. For example, if segmented neutrophils are lowered and lymphocytes are elevated, then the body is actively fighting bacteria and viruses. But, it’s not worthwhile to fall prematurely into panic, because an increase in the lymphocytic level can be a consequence of active sports, overwork or menstruation in women. During the examination, the doctor will ask all the leading questions to clarify the condition.
If a decrease in lymphocytes is detected relative to the norm, then we are talking about lymphopenia. This condition is often accompanied by purulent and acutely current infectious diseases. In addition, it can be one of the signs of poisoning the body, chemical.substances, alcohol, drugs. It cannot be ruled out that the decrease in the level of lymphocytes was due to the appearance of cancer cells, that is, the development of cancer. The term lymphocytopenia is often found in medical terminology.
Lymphocytopenia is a condition of the human body when the level of lymphocytes in its blood drops to a critical point, less than 12-15%.Under such circumstances, a person is prescribed to undergo an immunodeficiency test and to donate blood for the study of lymphocytic specimens.to contents ↑
Causes of lymphocytopenia
There are a number of diseases that can trigger a strong drop in lymphocytes. Among them are:
- deficiency of proteins and calories in the body;
- severe combined immunodeficiency;
- Viskot-Aldrich syndrome;
- renal failure;
- malignant neoplasm formation.
It often happens that a sharp drop in lymphocytes is associated with other factors, usually lymphocytopenia in this case is rather short-lived, this happens due to:
- long-term corticosteroid preparations
- experienced severe, stressful situations;
- treatment with prednisone;
- radiotherapy( for cancer).
In addition to the above reasons, there are cases when lymphocytopenia is the result of hereditary or congenital immunodeficiency, as well as impaired lymphocyte productivity.
Symptoms of lymphocytopenia
Lymphocytopenia itself is not accompanied by any characteristic signs. However, with a sharp drop in lymphocytes in the blood, various disorders can occur, recurrent diseases, viral and fungal lesions often appear.to contents ↑
What else does the
blood test show? When the form with the results comes into our hands, I would like to deal with all these unfamiliar concepts before visiting the doctor and find out what's going on in the body. Therefore, we will try to clarify what this or that combination of blood elements means.
In a situation where lymphocytes are elevated, neutrophils are lowered, there may be talk about the presence of a viral infection, and this is also the case because of the side effects of some medications. A decrease in neutrophils and an increase in lymphocytes at the same time, as a rule, means that a person has a focus of viral damage. You can find out what neutrophils are here.
The reverse situation, when mature segmented neutrophils are elevated, and lymphocytes are lowered, occurs during bacterial infection. At the same time, young forms of neutrophils - myelocytes, myeloblasts or metamyelocytes - may be present in the blood. In such cases, treatment with antibiotics is often used. More on segmented neutrophils, see the link http: //vseproanalizy.ru/ analizyi-krovi / leykotsitarnaya-formula / cegmentoyadernyie-neytrofilyi.html
Decreased neutrophils and lymphocytes reduced, with normal levels of eosinophils, is when a person has got the flu virus.
When monocytes are elevated, and lymphocytes are lowered, we can say that you are recovering after a viral illness or inflammatory process. However, similar parameters can be observed in infectious mononucleosis, which is safely hidden under the symptoms of influenza or ARVI.Read also the article "Causes of increase in monocytes in the blood."
Elevated lymphocytes and reduced neutrophils in the blood, most often talk about the development of the inflammatory process with which the human immune system is trying to fight on its own. If the lymphocyte count is too high, you can suspect tuberculosis or a malfunction of the thyroid gland.
If, according to analyzes, leukocytes are lowered, lymphocytes are elevated, the causes may be hiding in the current viral infection, such as whooping cough, chickenpox, measles, viral hepatitis, etc., but this combination may occur in a number of other diseases.
If you find any deviations in blood counts, do not panic and make up false diagnoses for yourself. The most correct decision will be to contact a specialist who will clarify the existing situation and, if necessary, prescribe an additional examination or treatment.