Decoding analysis for immunoglobulin E

Common immunoglobulin E( lg E) is an important analysis used to diagnose inflammation and allergic reactions, which changes almost instantly after exposure to an irritant. Using an E class immunoglobulin test, you can identify allergens or detect the presence of certain diseases, such as urticaria, bronchial asthma, etc. In more detail about what it is - a common immunoglobulin E and why it is prescribed, we describe below.

Table of Contents:
  • What is Immunoglobulin E?
  • Why is an immunoglobulin E test prescribed?
  • How to take an analysis?
  • Norm of immunoglobulin E
  • What does a common immunoglobulin E show in children?
  • Total immunoglobulin E elevated in adult
  • Reduction in
  • How to lower immunoglobulin E?
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What is an immunoglobulin E?

We can say that immunoglobulins are the main guards of our immunity. The number of their varieties is equal to the number of possible infections. Immunoglobulin E is responsible for protecting the outer layers of tissue that come into contact with the environment. This is the skin, mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs, tonsils, etc. In the blood of a healthy person, class E immunoglobulin is found in a small amount.

Unlike other immunoglobulins, type E is a specific indicator of allergy. Allergen penetrating or contacting with tissues interacts with lgE, as a result of which it binds to the complex, and an allergic reaction occurs at the site of impact:

  • Rhinitis;

Runny nose, nasal congestion, frequent sneezing and increased sensitivity of the nasal mucosa.

  • Rash;

Change in skin color or shape.

  • Bronchitis;

Cough caused by inflammation of the bronchi.

  • Asthma;

The presence of wheezing, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath caused by a decrease in the lumen of the bronchi is chronic.

  • Anaphylactic shock.

Immediate allergic reaction to an irritant characterized by high sensitivity and in some cases fatal.

In humans, this protective substance begins to be synthesized as early as the 11th week of intrauterine life. If there is an increased immunoglobulin E in umbilical cord blood, the probability of allergic reactions in a child is very high.

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Why is an immunoglobulin E test prescribed?

The norm of this substance, or rather the deviation from the norm, indicates the occurrence of various atopic allergies, but it is not enough to establish the fact of allergy. It is often necessary to find out the irritant factor, that is, the allergen.

Symptoms for analysis:

  • Skin rash;
  • Itching;

These symptoms are most often associated with a number of diseases. If you suspect any of them, it is recommended that you take an analysis and find out what the blood shows for immunoglobulin E. These diseases include:

  • Bronchial asthma;
  • Quincke’s edema;

Extensive urticaria caused by allergy antigen-antibody, which is most often seen in young women.

  • Bronchitis;
  • Allergic Dermatitis;
  • Pollinosis;

Allergic reaction, manifested in a certain season on pollen.

  • Hay fever;

Same as allergic rhinitis.

  • Lyell Syndrome;

Severe, often lethal disease that affects all the skin and mucous membranes of the victim, is allergic in nature and requires emergency medical care.

  • Infection with parasites;
  • Lymphogranulomatosis;

Tumor of the lymphatic system, which begins with an enlarged lymph nodes and then affects all organs.

  • , et al.

If immunoglobulin E is elevated according to the results of biochemical analysis, this means that the diagnosis is confirmed with a high probability.

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How to take an analysis?

To donate blood for immunoglobulin should be, adhering to the same rules that are characteristic of any other biochemical blood test. Namely:

  • Blood is donated in the morning;
  • Fasting - after an extreme meal, a minimum of 10 hours should pass;
  • Before giving blood, avoid physical exertion and strong emotions;
  • The amount of water consumed is not limited;
  • On the eve of donating blood, do not eat fatty foods, alcohol;
  • A day before going to the laboratory, it is not advisable to carry out ultrasound, fluorography, X-rays.

It should be added that immunoglobulin E may be increased unnecessarily due to laboratory errors that can never be ruled out. To clarify the result, you can donate blood again or go to another medical facility.

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Immunoglobulin E norm

Unlike other classes of antibodies, immunoglobulin E is practically not found in the bloodstream. Its formation occurs when there is a need to protect the body from an infectious lesion, or when acute allergic reactions occur. High immunoglobulin E in a child, as in principle in an adult, more often indicates the body's tendency to allergic manifestations and atopy, the development of an IgE response to exposure to external allergens.

The reference values ​​of the indicator in the blood differ depending on the age category of the patient. Until adolescence, the number of antibodies may gradually increase. The decrease in the concentration of protective cells decreases in old age.

Thus, the norm of immunoglobulin E in children by age:

  • 0-2 months - 0-2 kE / l;
  • 3-6 months - 3-10 kE / l;
  • 1 year of life - 8–20 kE / l
  • 2–5 years – 10–50 kE / l;
  • 5-15 years - 15-60 kE / l;
  • 15-18 years - 20-100 kE / l.

The rate of immunoglobulin e in adults is considered to be within:

  • From 20 to 100 kE / l.

It should also be noted that the highest concentration of antibodies is observed in the spring, especially in May, when an active flowering occurs in most plants. Therefore, the rate of total immunoglobulin E in adults can vary from 30 to 250 ke / l. The lowest level of the indicator is in December.

Deviation of total immunoglobulin E from the norm in children and more adult patients often indicates the development of pathological processes in the body.

To decrypt the analysis, it is imperative to contact a specialist, as some laboratories reserve the right to establish their own standards for common immunoglobulin E, based on the methods used for research and special reagents.

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What does the total immunoglobulin E in children show?

It should be noted that the analysis of immunoglobulin for children is more sensitive and accurate than for adults. For example, only in half of adults with allergic bronchitis, the result of the analysis will show a deviation from the norm, and the fact that immunoglobulin E is elevated in a child will not remain unnoticed by the laboratory assistant.

High levels of immunoglobulin E in childhood may be due to one of the following reasons:

  • Food intolerance to certain foods;
  • Worms;
  • Dermatitis;
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome;

Genetic disease characteristic of newborns, in which eczema manifests itself, there is bloody feces, secondary infections of the skin, pneumonia, otitis, and eye damage. Treatment requires platelet transfusions.

  • Hay fever;
  • Bronchial asthma;
  • D-Georgie Syndrome;

Immunodeficiency of a newborn that has been transmitted from parents. Manifested by the absence or reduction of the thymus, resulting in the immune system does not develop and does not work as it should. Treatment requires the use of combination therapy. Complications are developmental lag, tumors at an early age, etc.

  • Drug allergy;
  • Myeloma( Cancer of plasma cells).

Especially it is necessary to pay attention to the high rate of immunoglobulin in the blood of children. This may be due to genetic pathology - hyper-IgE-syndrome. This syndrome manifests itself through some signs:

  1. Total immunoglobulin E is elevated in a child;
  2. Frequent rhinitis and sinusitis;
  3. Autoimmune diseases( eg, systemic lupus erythematosus), in which the immune system begins to destroy itself.
  4. Inflammation of the lungs;
  5. Scoliosis;
  6. Frequent bone fractures;
  7. Abscesses of mucous and skin surfaces.

Abnormality in children of immunoglobulin E downward is also not a healthy phenomenon. It may be associated with:

  • Louis-Barr Syndrome;
  • The appearance of tumors;
  • Hereditary disorders( hypogammaglobulinemia).
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Total immunoglobulin E increased in an adult

The causes of this phenomenon in people over 18 years old are almost the same as those described above. The only thing that even a strong allergy to any one irritant cannot cause a significant increase in immunoglobulin E in an adult. As we have already said, the adult immune system is less sensitive than the child's one.

A common immunoglobulin is elevated in an adult if, in addition to being allergic to a whole list of irritants, he has asthma.

In addition to allergic irritants, the protective response of the immune function may be caused by the presence of parasites in the body, for example, helminths( or worms).They destroy the mucous membrane, which is immediately reflected in the increase of protective cells in the blood.

Abnormal immunoglobulin E in adults is also triggered by the following diseases:

  • Immunodeficiency;
  • lgE-myeloma;
  • bronchopulmonary aspergillosis;
  • hyper-IgE syndrome.

Some of these diseases are very dangerous, so you can not neglect the overestimated result.

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Reduction in the rate of

A significant decrease in the concentration of the considered component is extremely rare in medical practice, and usually immunoglobulin is lowered in an adult with the following pathologies:

  • Congenital( or acquired) immunodeficiency;
  • with IgE myeloma;
  • Ataxia due to telangiectasia and T-cell damage.

The absence of specific immunoglobulin in the blood serum does not exclude the possibility of the development of allergic rhinitis. For more accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to analyze antibodies belonging to other classes.

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How to lower immunoglobulin E?

If it was determined in the laboratory that your blood contains immunoglobulin E levels above the norm, the doctor must, with your consent, schedule additional tests to find out which allergen is to blame for the abnormality.

Typically, the patient in turn is tested with typical allergens:

  • For pollen;
  • For food;
  • On household dust and mites;
  • On Fungi;
  • On animal hair.

It is not possible to conduct allergy tests for those who currently have a chronic illness in acute form, an acute infection or are being treated with hormonal medicines.

Elevated immunoglobulin E in a child can be eliminated in the same way as for adults if the child has reached six months of age. Till 6 months it is not recommended to test for allergens, since the immune system is still too weak.

If it succeeds in identifying a stimulus, a series of procedures are performed that reduce its sensitivity to it. During periods of exacerbation, prescribe antihistamines in the form of tablets or ointments. In atopic dermatitis, application of irritating compounds to irritated skin is mandatory.

A comprehensive approach to the treatment of allergies can quickly overcome the increased immunoglobulin E in adults and children.

Leave comments if you have any questions on the above topic, as well as if there are additions to the material.

God bless you!