Ldg: norm and deviations

Lactate dehydrogenase( or LDH) in the blood is determined to identify a whole complex of various diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, or liver pathologies. LDH is an enzyme that participates in the formation of lactic acid in the body through the oxidation of glucose. What is ldg in the biochemical analysis of blood, and what pathological conditions may indicate deviation of the indicator.

Table of contents:
  • Norm ldg in blood
  • Lactate dehydrogenase increased
  • What is the definition of LHD used for?
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Norm ldg in blood

In a healthy person, the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase does not accumulate in the body, but is neutralized or eliminated naturally. However, some pathologies leading to cell disintegration will certainly lead to an increase in LDH.

There are established boundaries when they say that LDG is normal. The rate of the indicator, to a greater extent, depends on the age of the patient, since in the beginning of life the level of the enzyme reaches the highest values, and over the years the blood lactate rate decreases markedly.

Thus, for newborns, the analysis of ldg is considered normal if it is less than 2000 Units / liter of blood, or 2.0 µmol / h * l. In children under 2 years old, the level of the enzyme is still quite high, and the indicator is considered to be the norm, the indicator is not more than 430 U / l. In children under 12 years of age, a rate of no more than 295 U / l is considered normal. As for adults, the norm ldg in the blood of women is approximately from 135 to 214 U / l, and in men, 135-225 U / l.

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Lactate dehydrogenase increased

As already noted, the main reason for the increase in the level of lactates is the destruction of cellular structures in certain pathological conditions. LDH elevated causes:

  • myocardial infarction or heart failure;
  • stroke;
  • pulmonary infarction or pulmonary insufficiency;
  • kidney disease;
  • liver cirrhosis;
  • hepatitis, jaundice;
  • pancreatitis in acute form;
  • blood diseases( leukemia, anemia, etc.);
  • organ cancers;
  • acute skeletal and muscle injuries( atrophy, dystrophy, etc.);
  • hypoxia, oxygen deficiency in organs and tissues, respiratory failure;
  • if ldg is elevated during pregnancy, in most cases this is considered normal, or it becomes a signal of placental abruption.

These are the most common cases in which an elevated enzyme ldg is detected by a biochemical blood test. However, it happens that lactate dehydrogenase is increased and the reasons for this are physiological, that is, the indicator is false and does not indicate the development of pathology in humans. Provocative factors may include:

  • certain skin diseases;
  • heavy physical and psychological stress on the eve of the analysis;
  • alcohol intake;
  • use of certain drugs( especially insulin, aspirin, anesthetics);
  • thrombocytosis.

Since each organ has established the so-called ldg isoenzymes( LDG1,2,3,4,5).With an increase in LDH 1 and 2, it is most likely a myocardial infarction, and the high concentration of the enzyme in the blood lasts for 10 days after a heart attack. With the growth of LGD 1 and 3, one can suspect the development of myopathy in a person. If LDG 4 and 5 enzymes are especially active, then it is possible to judge liver disorders, for example, in acute hepatitis. Also, these isoenzymes can be enhanced by damage to the muscles and bones, with possible damage to internal organs. If you suspect the development of cancer, especially pay attention to the concentration of LDH 3, 4 and 5.

With an increase in LDH, the doctor may prescribe an additional blood test for SDH, this analysis gives more accurate results.

Situations when the blood LDH is lowered are extremely rare. And as a rule, an analysis with such a result has no diagnostic value. Such a situation is usually attributed to errors during laboratory testing. Sometimes, lowering the level of the enzyme is associated with the use of ascorbic acid or vitamin C in large quantities.

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What is the definition of LHD used for?

A blood lactate concentration test is often prescribed to confirm the diagnosis. However, if earlier this diagnostic method was popular and widely used, then today its role is gradually losing its importance, since it was replaced by more accurate and reliable methods of analysis. However, such studies can be very expensive and difficult in a technical sense.

For research, blood is taken from a vein, it is considered the most concentrated and easier to process. After sampling, the necessary serum is extracted from the blood, by which it is determined at what level the patient has lactate. The test results are usually ready on the 2nd day after the study.

Thus, with the help of the LDG analysis, it is possible to promptly detect the presence in humans of diseases, disorders, and pathological processes at a very early stage, before the appearance of characteristic symptoms.