Bad cholesterol - LDL.Why rises and how to reduce it

A large number of substances and compounds are constantly circulating in human blood. Some of them are easily transported through the bloodstream, dissolving in it. Cholesterol, on the other hand, does not dissolve in pure form in the plasma, so it is in the blood as part of complex lipoproteins. Depending on the structure, lipoproteins are classified into several groups. What this is - low-density lipoprotein( LDL), will be discussed in this article. These compounds are used to assess the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. An analysis of LDL can provide important information about the patient's health.

Table of contents:
  • Good and bad lipoproteins
  • Very low density lipoproteins
  • Norm LDL
  • What does LDL cholesterol increase?
  • How to reduce bad cholesterol
  • LDL cholesterol lowered, what does this mean?
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Good and bad lipoproteins

The density of lipoproteins depends on the ratio of proteins and fats in them. The more proteins found in the compound, the greater the density of the lipoprotein. Accordingly, high-density lipoproteins( HDL) are the most protein. They are less able to linger in the vessel walls, and also help other fat deposits to be sent for further processing to the liver, therefore HDL not only do not contribute to diseases, but also prevent them.

LDL - this is just bad cholesterol, the level of proteins in them is about 25%, 75% are lipids, that is, fats. Of course, these compounds also play an important role in the body, but when low-density lipoproteins are elevated, there is a risk of developing heart and vascular diseases. The analysis of LDL is even more informative in the diagnosis of diseases than the analysis of total cholesterol.

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Very low density lipoproteins

Another type of lipoprotein is abbreviated as VLDL.They have the largest diameter and the highest cholesterol content, and therefore carry the most significant threat to the cardiovascular system. VLDL function is to carry lipids along the bloodstream.

In the blood, very low density lipoproteins are hydrolyzed by enzymes. As a result of the reaction, triglycerides are released and lipoproteins become significantly smaller in size, turning into intermediate-density lipoproteins or low-density lipoproteins.

As well as LDL, VLDL is used in the analysis to assess the risk of atherosclerosis and other diseases.

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LDL Norm

Optimal LDL values ​​vary by age and gender. As a rule, with age, cholesterol and lipoproteins in the blood increase.

For women, the norm in the blood in women is:

0-20 years: 60-149 mg / l or 1.55-3.62 mmol / l;

20-30 years: 59-160 mg / l or 1.54-4.14 mmol / l;

30-40 years: 70-175 mg / l or 1.80-4.52 mmol / l;

40-50 years: 80-189 mg / l or 2.07-4.89 mmol / l;

The norm of LDL in women after 50 years on average is 90-232 mg / l or 2.32-6 mmol / l.

Men, depending on their age, normally have the following LDL values:

0–20 years old: 60–140 mg / l or 1.55–3.63 mmol / l;

20-30 years: 59-174 mg / l or 1.54-4.52 mmol / l;

30–40 years: 80–180 mg / l or 2.07–4.65 mmol / l;

40-50 years: 90–200 mg / l or 2.32-5.17 mmol / l;

At older ages, men have a rate of 90–210 mg / l or 2.32–5.43 mmol / l.

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What does LDL cholesterol increase?

Most often, an increase in LDL in the blood is observed with prolonged malnutrition, lack of physical activity, as well as with diseases of the thyroid gland.

In the event that LDL cholesterol is elevated, you should first make adjustments to your daily diet. Previously, doctors prescribed a low-fat diet. Currently, it has already been proved that the intake of fats in the body is necessary! If the healthy foods containing fats stop feeding with food, the liver will more actively produce cholesterol, and as a result its level will not decrease. And although it is impossible to completely give up fat, the consumption of the following products containing bad cholesterol should be somewhat limited:

  • Butter;
  • Semi-Finished Products;
  • Pork lard;
  • Flour and Sweet;
  • Fat Meat.

There is also a list of products, the use of which on the contrary contributes to lowering LDL, we will talk about how to raise good cholesterol and lower bad, a little lower.

The next step for people with high LDL is to add sport to life. Exercise helps to reduce cholesterol in the blood and reduce the likelihood of disease. In addition, the problem of being overweight, which may be relevant for high cholesterol levels of low-density lipoproteins, can also be eliminated through sports. Even if you do not have the opportunity to go to the gym, daily active exercises will be very useful for the health of the heart and blood vessels.

It should be borne in mind that if low-density cholesterol is elevated, the reasons may be hiding in age, especially for women. When menopause occurs, the level of “bad” cholesterol in women increases and becomes higher than in men.

Some medication groups also affect elevated LDL cholesterol and lowered HDL cholesterol. These include corticosteroids, anabolic steroids, and contraceptives.

Genetic predisposition to high levels of "harmful" cholesterol also occurs, but much less frequently than other causes. In this case, familial hypercholesterolemia is diagnosed and treatment is prescribed to maintain normal levels of LDL.

Deviations in the norm of low-density lipoproteins can be associated with diseases of organs such as the liver, kidneys, and thyroid gland. The effects of diabetes also negatively affect healthy blood cholesterol levels.

An increase in the rate of LDL in women may be due to a recent pregnancy. After childbirth, cholesterol testing should be done only six months later; with an earlier study, the result may be too high. The same effect has on the result of smoking, long-term rigorous diets, as well as the use on the eve of fatty foods.

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How to reduce bad cholesterol

First, find out from which the results of the analysis deviated from the norm, and eliminate the causes, if possible.

Secondly, LDL cholesterol can be reduced by using products that reduce “bad” cholesterol and increase “good”.These products include:

  1. Tomato

It is believed that tomatoes, or rather the lycopene contained in them( pigment), is able to reduce cholesterol levels by 0.1 per day. To do this, you need to consume 25 milligrams of lycopene or two glasses of natural tomato juice.

In addition, the additional benefit of tomatoes is to feed the heart muscle and reduce weight, which is also very important in the fight against excess cholesterol.

  1. Carrots

It is enough to eat only two carrots a day to reach the normal level of low-density cholesterol. In addition, this useful fruit is able to normalize the kidneys, liver, reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and prevent inflammation of the gums and caries.

  1. Garlic

Low-density lipoproteins can be reduced by eating garlic. Garlic contains the substance Allin, which during processing( cutting, pressure, chewing, etc.) is converted to allicin. It is allicin that cleans blood vessels from fatty plaques and deposits.

At the same time, garlic has contraindications, in addition to bad breath. So an excess of it in the diet can even harm the body.

  1. Seafood, fish, eggs

If LDL cholesterol is elevated, what does this mean in most cases? That there is a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis due to the settling of fatty plaques on the walls of blood vessels. So, it is necessary to take additional measures to eliminate excess cholesterol from the body.“Good” lipoproteins, that is, high-density lipoproteins, cope well with this task. They are found in foods such as fish, seafood, egg yolk.

Cholesterol, which enters the body with these products, not only does not harm, it also helps to send the excess fat in the vessels for recycling to the liver.

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LDL cholesterol lowered, what does this mean?

In medical practice, low LDL levels are less important than high ones. This is due to the fact that the analysis has low specificity. However, low levels of low density lipoprotein can mean:

  • Inherited abnormalities;
  • Severe abnormal liver function;
  • Bone Marrow Cancer;
  • Hyperthyroidism: increased performance of the thyroid gland;
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency, i.e. anemia;
  • Extensive burns;
  • Acute infectious diseases;
  • Obstructive chronic lung disease;
  • Inflammation of the joints.

If you have any questions about what LDL is in a biochemical blood test, ask them in the comments. It is very important for us to receive feedback from you.

God bless you!