Pituitary hormones, their tasks and functional features

Pituitary hormones are of particular importance for the coordinated work of many organs. First of all, they regulate endocrine functions and the sexual sphere, but they have a direct effect on the heart, kidneys, and even the musculoskeletal system.

Contents:
  • functional role of the hypothalamic-pituitary system
  • Features hormones cerebral pituitary
  • Hormones produced by adenohypophysis
  • ACTH
  • LH and FSH
  • thyrotropin
  • STG
  • Prolactin
  • Hormones intermediate and posterior pituitary
  • Vasopressin
  • Oxytocin

Any change in the hormonal balance,which is influenced by the hypothalamic-pituitary system, certainly affect the human body. Some changes are not dangerous for him, while others, on the contrary, can lead to serious violations. That is why it is so important to know what hormones the pituitary gland produces and what their tasks are in the human body.

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The functional role of the hypothalamic-pituitary system

Before considering the question of which specific hormone the pituitary gland secretes, it is necessary to understand what this part of the human brain is responsible for.

The pituitary gland is a specific appendage of the GM, which is divided into 3 parts:

  • is the anterior lobe, which is formed from glandular elements;
  • neurohypophysis, composed entirely of nerve cells;
  • middle section located between the anterior and posterior lobes( it is also called intermediate).

The hormones of the anterior and middle parts of the pituitary gland and their functions are closely related to the hypothalamus. In fact, these are two integral parts that create a specific hormonal balance in the human body.

The hypothalamus is an appendage of the brain, which includes cells of the nervous and endocrine systems. The hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary can not function separately from each other, because together these two parts of the brain are combined in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, the effect of which on the human body is difficult to overestimate.

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Features of cerebral pituitary hormones

The hormones of the pituitary gland and their main functions are recorded in the table below.

item no. Hormonal unit Functional purpose
1. Corticotropin Relieves inflammation, stimulates the body's immune forces.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone Stimulates the metabolic process in the body.
3. LH( Lyutropin) Responsible for the puberty and development of women.
4. Follitropin Responsible for the sexual function( maturation of the egg) in women and the production of sperm - in men.
5. Somatotropin Contributes to the rest of the internal organs.
6. Prolactin Responsible for the period of breastfeeding and the production of breast milk.
7. Oxytocin Influences the process of labor, helps to stop uterine bleeding
8. Vasopressin Retains water and sodium in the tissues of the body.

As can be seen, the hormone-producing functions of the pituitary gland are important for the full operation of the human body. Each of the parts of the brain appendage produces specific elements that regulate the vital functions of various organs of internal secretion.

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Hormones produced by the adenohypophysis

Hormones synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland are, for the most part, regulatory. What does this term mean? This means that under their control is the functioning of the peripheral endocrine glands. Such substances are also called tropic hormones of the pituitary gland. Briefly consider each of these elements.

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ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone is one of the main elements that stimulate the work of the adrenal cortex. Under its influence, the active production of glucocorticoids occurs - hormonal units that are a response to stress or adaptation.

In addition, these hormones of the adenohypophysis promote the secretion of melanocytes. And these substances are known to be responsible for the shade of the human epidermis.

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LH and FSH

Lutropin and FSH are the elements that are responsible for the functioning of the reproductive system. They belong to the group of pituitary gonadotropic hormones.

LH contributes to the onset of the ovulation process in women and the synthesis of androgens in the male. As for FSH, this substance is responsible for the maturation of the egg. In men, it takes part in spermatogenesis.

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Thyrotropin

Tyrotropins are adenohypophysis hormones that coordinate the synthesis and release of the main thyroid hormone elements in the blood - T3 and T4.A deficiency or excess of thyrotropins can lead to the development of serious thyroid pathologies.

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STG

Somatotropins are pituitary hormones that regulate protein synthesis and the growth of various organs. That is, they are actively involved in anabolic processes. Any deviations in the content of this substance are fraught with dangerous and very unpleasant consequences.

Read more in the article "Rate and deviations of growth hormone growth hormone".

So, a surplus of somatotropins leads to gigantism, especially if a deviation in the indicators was found in young children. With a lack of this hormone produced by the pituitary gland, the disease nanizm, or short stature, develops.

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Prolactin

Prolactin is a multifunctional hormone unit that regulates the functioning of the reproductive system. It has a direct effect on the process of metabolism, and also provides a lactation period. Therefore, if we talk about which hormone the pituitary gland produces to regulate the functioning of the sexual sphere in men and women, then, first of all, it will be about prolactin. Read more at http: //vseproanalizy.ru/ kak-sdavat-prolaktin.html

Reducing its amount in the blood causes a failure in the menstrual cycle and the inability to conceive a child in women, and sexual disorders - in men. However, the excess of permissible indicators is also a serious deviation, which may indicate the development of diseases of the reproductive system, as well as the presence of tumors in the pituitary gland.

Read also:

  • Causes of low prolactin in women
  • Causes and effects of increased prolactin

In brief, familiarizing yourself with what the anterior lobe of the brain pituitary produces, it is necessary to consider the main hormonal units produced by its other parts. They perform equally important functions, and you need to know about them.

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Hormones in the intermediate and posterior part of the pituitary

If we talk about hormones that are synthesized in the middle portion of the pituitary, then only one substance is produced in this area - melanotropin. It affects the skin color, although there are suggestions that it is also associated with the processes of memory formation.

There are 2 main hormones of the neurohypophysis, which are responsible for the functioning of the endocrine and nervous system. Although, to be completely accurate, these substances are produced in the hypothalamus, and the pituitary cells serve as their specific reservoir.

So, what hormones are formed in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? In this case, we are talking about 2 units: oxytocin and vasopressin. These are two completely different functional substances, each of which is responsible for very different processes in the human body. Briefly consider what these neurohypophysis hormones are responsible for.

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Vasopressin

Vasopressin is a substance that is necessary to maintain normal water-salt balance in the human body. With its help, the permeability of cell walls to water is controlled, that is, it takes an active part in regulating the function of urination and blood circulation. Lack of hormone posterior lobe of the pituitary gland causes the development of such a dangerous disease as diabetes insipidus.

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Oxytocin

Oxytocin is most needed by women during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, these hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulate the process of labor, reduce pain during childbirth, and also contribute to the opening of the cervix. Based on this, we conclude that oxytocin is most needed in late pregnancy.

However, this substance is also important for nursing mothers. Under its influence occurs the production of prolactin - a hormone that stimulates the production of breast milk. Due to this interaction, the lactation process is regulated and stabilized, which plays a particularly important role in the development of immunity( and not only!) Of a newborn baby.

Good advice. If a young mother has problems with the release of milk, you must independently force the body to produce it in the right quantities. To do this, as often as possible to put the baby to the chest. Stimulation of the mammary glands sends a signal to the pituitary gland, which regulates all the processes occurring in the female body before and after childbirth. Moreover, the earlier a woman teaches a crumb to the breast, and the longer it does not separate him from her, the more stable will be the production of breast milk!