Direct bilirubin: normal, why elevated
Direct bilirubin is a specific yellow-brown pigment, a component of bile, which is an integral part of bilirubin and is produced in many organs and tissues of the human body. This pigment is the end product after the breakdown of hemoglobin cells in red blood cells and other hemo-containing proteins in the liver, bone marrow and spleen. Normally, bilirubin is eliminated from the body naturally, along with bile or feces. Deviations of bilirubin from standard values, in most cases, indicate the development of serious diseases. Therefore, what is direct bilirubin, it was necessary to recognize patients with suspicions of certain diseases of the liver, biliary system and other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Direct bilirubin is normal
- Why is direct bilirubin increased
- Direct bilirubin is lowered, what does this mean?
How is direct bilirubin formed and why is its study used?
About 300 mg of bilirubin is formed daily in the human body, and most of it( 80% or more) is formed during the breakdown of hemoglobin( out of 1 g of hemoglobin, almost 40 g of bilirubin is obtained).
Human blood is a rapidly renewable substance, therefore complex chemical reactions in the body occur constantly. Initially, split hemoglobin cells are transformed into indirect( or free) bilirubin, such a pigment is very toxic and poisonous, and is completely insoluble in water. After adding sugar-containing substances to it, which makes bilirubin more soluble and concentrated, it moves, mainly to the liver, then to the bile ducts and intestines. Normally, there should be no direct bilirubin in the blood at all; its concentration can increase only in those cases when the liver is not able to remove the pigment in time and to the fullest extent or something prevents the normal flow of bile.
Read about other fractions in the following articles:
- Indirect blood bilirubin
- Norm and deviations of total bilirubin
Direct bilirubin in norm
The level of bilirubin is determined with the help of special laboratory equipment and positioned body patterns, as well as body patterns, patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, and body patterns, as well as body patterns, etc.own established "rules".As a rule, reference values (average permissible limits of the indicator) are indicated on the form itself for analysis.
The rate of direct bilirubin in women and men is almost the same. However, in men, Gibert's special syndrome, which is a hereditary pathology that causes a steady increase in direct bilirubin, occurs ten times more often. Anyway, for all adults, averaged boundaries of normal bilirubin are established, from 0 to 3.5 µmol / l( and up to 4.6 from another source).
The direct bilirubin rate in the blood of women carrying a baby meets the standard standards established for the entire adult population. However, in the third trimester there may be a slight increase in the level, as a result of the strong bending of the bile ducts.
Newborn babies, who often have high direct bilirubin, should also be noted, in medicine this condition is called physiological jaundice, becausethe liver immediately after birth, is not yet able to fully perform its intended functions. By the first year of life, the situation should return to normal.to contents ↑
Why direct bilirubin is increased
When all “bilirubin” processes are normal, this pigment is practically absent in the blood, or in small amounts. But, for pathological disorders in the body, total and direct bilirubin can be increased. This condition is called hyperbilirubinemia. Pigment, penetrating through the blood into organs and tissues, causes a noticeable yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes. In addition, a person may experience symptoms such as:
- nausea with vomiting;
- heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
- bitter taste in mouth or belching;
- darker urine;
- overall deterioration.
The main reasons why direct blood bilirubin is elevated:
- Liver diseases:
- hepatitis of any kind( viral, bacterial, toxic, medicinal, etc.);
- infectious mononucleosis;
- oncological formations in the liver;
- secondary and tertiary syphilis
- Diseases of the biliary tract:
- gallstone disease;
- tumor formations, scars or enlarged nodes near the biliary tract, forming their obstruction
- Blood diseases:
- pathological processes associated with accelerated destruction of red blood cells
- Chemical poisoning of the body, such as alcohol, chemicals or drugs;
- Congenital, hereditary Gilbert's syndrome;
- Direct bilirubin is elevated with physiological jaundice in newborns.
Above were listed the most common reasons why common and direct bilirubin was elevated. However, some factors may affect the final result, for example:
- Excessively greasy food on the eve of the analysis;
- Acceptance of many drugs, includinganti-inflammatory, antifungal agents, antibiotics, and oral contraceptives.
As a result, you can get a "false" elevated bilirubin in blood. With minor deviations, the doctor may suggest that you retake this analysis, in compliance with all the rules of preparation.to contents ↑
Bilirubin direct lowered, what does this mean?
Formulation: a reduced level of bilirubin, as a result of the analysis is extremely rare, more often patients and specialists are worried about its increase.
However, if in the form with the result there is still an insufficient amount of pigment, most likely the reason lies in improper preparation of the patient for the analysis, or incorrect conduct of the study itself.
It should be noted that before donating blood, the patient is not allowed to take coffee, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, since it is likely to get a "false" result.
It should be understood that any decoding of analyzes should be performed only by a qualified specialist, as a person without honey. Education may misinterpret it.
God bless you, trust the doctors!