The rate of platelets in the blood of a child. What does the increase or decrease

It is very important to monitor the condition of the child’s blood, because many pathologies and abnormalities in the body can be detected using routine clinical analysis. Many parents know that hemoglobin needs to be maintained, but very few people know what platelets are and what their role in the body is.

Table of Contents:
  • Norm
  • Causes of low blood platelets in a child
  • Elevated

Platelets are the smallest blood platelets without color and nucleus, are formed in the bone marrow, and then go into the bloodstream. Their main role is to regulate the processes of blood clotting, maintain it in a liquid form, and also react and eliminate the bleeding that has occurred, "sealing" the site of damage with a thrombus. A decrease or increase in blood platelets in a child is not in itself a disease, but can be regarded by the doctor as a signal to the body about the pathological process that is present, and as a reason for conducting an additional examination.

Let us examine in more detail what the rate of platelets in the blood of a child is, and under what conditions a low or elevated level of this indicator can be observed.

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The number of platelets is determined in the laboratory, after the complete blood count. This indicator is important for the overall assessment of the health of the baby, as it can be used to assess blood clotting and learn about the body's ability to withstand various types of bleeding.

The norms for platelet level are established for children, depending on age:

  • for newborns - 180-490 * 109 / l;
  • from 10 days to a year - 150-400 * 109 / l;
  • older than a year and throughout life - 160-380 * 109 / l;
  • in girls in adolescence during the first menstrual period, the platelet level can decrease to 75-220 * 109 / l.

It should be noted that the number of platelets during the day is not constant, and the test results may vary if one is done in the morning and the other in the evening. In addition, a significant decrease in the level during the spring period was revealed, and an increase after strong physical and emotional stress and overstrain. Taking certain types of drugs( in particular antibiotics) may produce a distorted blood test result.

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Causes of low blood platelets in a child

A low level of blood platelets in a child is called thrombocytopenia. This condition leads to a worsening of blood coagulability, the blood becomes too "liquid", which can cause increased bleeding. For children, such a situation can carry a greater threat to health and life, because babies are especially prone to various injuries, falls and bruises. With thrombocytopenia, the blood vessels become too flimsy and lose their former elasticity, and therefore the risk of internal bleeding increases significantly.

Possible causes of lowered platelets in a child:

  • allergic reactions( often to medications);
  • intoxication;
  • long-term use of certain antibiotics, diuretics, analgesics, corticosteroids;
  • anemia;
  • lack of Vit. B12 or folic acid;
  • some viral and infectious diseases( eg tuberculosis);
  • hyperthyroidism( enhanced thyroid function) and thyrotoxicosis( increased production of thyroid hormones);
  • congenital coagulation disorder( DIC);
  • acute renal failure or its treatment with "artificial kidney"( hemodialysis).

It is possible to suspect that there are not enough platelets in the blood of a child, even before testing, according to some characteristic features:

  • hematomas appear on the body even after minor touches and effects on the skin;
  • often experience nasal bleeding or rectal blood flow;
  • after wounds and cuts blood stops long and problematic;
  • on the skin appear small red dots, reticulums and asterisks;
  • in girls may be inexplicably long and heavy menstruation;
  • bleeding gums.

If platelets are significantly reduced in a child who has recently been born, and unexplainable bruises constantly appear on his small body, the doctor can diagnose congenital hemophilia in the newborn. A child with such a diagnosis, as well as a child with thrombocytopenia, must be especially protected from all kinds of injuries and bruises, since inflammatory process may develop in places of injury.

If low platelets in a child is one of the indicators of any underlying disease, then no special measures are needed to eliminate this ailment, the blood condition is normalized after the main problem is eliminated.

If the level of the indicator fell to a critical point, for example, to 20-50 * 109 / l, then emergency hospitalization of the mother with the child is necessary.

For the treatment of children, the following methods are used:

  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin;
  • nutritional donor milk, as well as transfusion of platelet mass from relatives or a donor;
  • taking ascorbic acid and rutin;
  • intravenous glucocorticosteroids;
  • prednisone treatment.

If the platelets are lowered in the child to acceptable values, when treatment can be organized at home, try not to exercise too much physical activity with the child, move less, play quiet games, relax more often and create the correct daily routine, where sleep does not go awayless than 10-12 hours.

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A condition where there is a significant increase in blood platelets in a child is called thrombocytosis. This disease can occur in children at any age. Usually, a doctor establishes thrombocytosis at a level of over 600 * 109 / l.

Distinguish between primary and secondary( symptomatic) thrombocytosis.

Primary, as a rule, arises due to a violation( or defect) of bone marrow stem cells, for example, when a tumor occurs.

High blood platelets in a child or secondary thrombocytosis associated with the development of various diseases:

  • tuberculosis;
  • hemolytic( or iron deficient) anemia;
  • osteomyelitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • spleen removal;
  • malignant tumors;
  • injury and inflammation;
  • viral, fungal, bacterial and other infections in acute form;
  • large blood loss after surgery.

An increased number of platelets in the child’s blood may indicate complaints of heaviness and swelling of the limbs, pain in the tips of the fingers, itching of the skin, bluish color of the lips, legs and hands, cold to the touch of the limbs, sometimes pronounced hypoxia( lack of oxygen).

If a child has a high level of platelets, timely and high-quality diagnosis and further treatment of the disease, which led to the rise of the indicator, are required.

In addition, for older kids it is necessary to ensure a balanced diet. In the diet should be foods enriched with iodine, iron, calcium, and food, contributing to the dilution of blood.

Parents should keep a constant check on the health of your offspring, because reduced or increased platelets in a child can be a signal of some diseases. And to treat ailment at the initial stage is much easier than its running form.

Health to you and kids!