The parasitic worm in the human intestine
Where does the tapeworm live in the human body?
Posted on: 14 Jun at 1: 2
Seven of 10 people are infected with parasites! To get them you need to drink 2 teaspoons. - says Elena Malysheva!
A very unpleasant topic in the medical field that every person would like to avoid is, of course, worms. But, unfortunately, very few people it bypasses, especially in childhood because of constant contact with animals, earth, sand and other types of carriers of worms. The Internet is full of terrible videos and photos with such parasites.
Often parents cough and runny nose children are taken for a cold. Behind such simple symptoms, the cause is much more terrible than the common cold - the tapeworm. In the human body, more than 500 species of live worms can parasitize in the intestine and stomach. Not all the population and even doctors are aware of this. A person can have lachrymation, rashes, allergic manifestations, despite the fact that the tapeworm is in the intestine. The child does not feel any particular manifestations directly in the abdomen, if the causative form of the tapeworm is a small sized worm (eg, dwarf tartar). In rare cases, there is an itch of the anus. However, with the passage of time, when complications develop, bright clinical symptoms appear. If there is a tapeworm in a weakened organism, the symptoms can be much more difficult, such as weakening of vision, inhibition in child development, overexcitation or hysteria. The most obvious manifestations are itching and the presence of the worm in the feces (determined visually). Symptomatic with a tapeworm in the abdomen is pallor, fatigue, lethargy, high appetite, combined with poor weight gain, pain and much more.
Ways of infection of the body with a tapeworm
The ways of infection with the solitair of the human body depend on the causative species of the helminth. Most often it is a bull and pork chain. Man can infect these parasites with the use of invasive meat. Eggs and larvae of these chains live in the muscles. Therefore, if the meat is thermally poorly treated, then they will not perish, but fall into the human body. In it, they will begin their parasitic activity. Similarly, events develop with the use of dried and smoked meat.
To get rid of parasites, the head of the Institute of Parasitology recommends a simple and effective remedy. Read more
However, this way of infection is not typical for all solitaires. In some species, people get infected through a sandbox, soil, unwashed fruits and vegetables, berries. Contact with something like that, unwashed hands, all this contributes to infection and settlement of the helminth in the body. In this way, children between the ages of 4 and 14 are infected, and hygienic skills are not yet fully developed. This is how the dwarf, pumpkin and rat chains are transmitted.
Thus, the factors of infection are divided into the following types:
- The use of contaminated meat
- Contact with contaminated soil or sand
- The use of unwashed vegetables and fruits.
However, regardless of the factors, the pathway of infection with these helminths is the only pathway for food. That is, parasites get through the mouth and penetrate the intestine, where they are absorbed into the bloodstream and migrate through various organs. Penetrating into the body, the tapeworm settles in various organs:
Intestine is the primary source of penetration of parasites. If the body is strong (the immune system works well), and the degree of invasion is low, then the tapeworm at this stage may die, and the disease will not develop. Otherwise, it sucks in the mucous membrane and enters through the enterocytes into the bloodstream.
Given the peculiarities of the blood supply of the lungs, this organ is the second one on the path of the migration of solitaires in the body. In it, they can settle down and cause a pulmonary form of the disease. If they penetrate this barrier, they can get into any organ. This will lead to a violation of its function, which is due to mechanical pressure and toxic effects of the products of helminth decomposition. Therefore, the food path of infection does not mean that the tartar will settle exclusively in the digestive system. It can cause multiple organ damage.
Removal of tapeworm from the intestine
Treatment of worms in humans is a rather complex process. It requires a complete examination of the body, diagnosing the size of parasites, species, quantity. Depending on other diseases of the body and the above-mentioned indicators, treatment is prescribed, which is carried out permanently. Preparations for the destruction of tapeworm in the body are the strongest poisons for them. By several stages of withdrawal of worms such as, withdrawal of toxic substances of parasites, antihelminthic drugs, and immunostimulating drugs, a positive result is achieved. It is not recommended to engage in self-medication (grandmother's methods) or treatment on video and photos in networks. All this can aggravate a person's condition, rather than withdraw parasites.
A checkup and a parasitologist-appointed treatment are mandatory. Often the symptomatology does not indicate the presence of tapeworm in a person, and he does not know about it. However, it is necessary to pass an analysis on the eggs of the worm to exclude this disease. Early diagnosis will help to remove helminths from the body.
Defeats the body with a tapeworm
This parasite can settle not only, as it is commonly believed, in the digestive tract. He also successfully parasitizes the brain and eyes. It's complicated by the fact that he can save up to one million eggs per day. In the human body, the helminth may exist up to 20 years. To withdraw parasites living in the intestine for several years is very difficult. In the brain, the tapeworm falls with a current of blood. It can be found both in brain fluids and in the corresponding tissues. Harm here he brings no less than in the intestines - headaches, pressure, convulsions. Causes neuronal atrophy and rapid death. Since the eggs spread by blood, the worm can settle in the eyes, causing severe consequences until the loss of vision. Delayed treatment can permanently deprive a person of the opportunity to see.
Who said that getting rid of parasites is difficult?
Judging by the fact that you are now reading these lines - victory in the fight against parasites is not on your side.
And you have already thought about the cardinal methods of purifying the body? It is understandable, because parasites are dangerous - they live long and actively multiply in the human body, so the diseases caused by them take a chronic, constantly recurring course. Nervousness, sleep and appetite disorder, immune disorders, intestinal dysbiosis. All these symptoms are familiar to you not by hearsay.
We recommend reading the article by Sergei Rykov, head of the Institute of Parasitology, about modern methods of getting rid of parasites. Read more
Round worm worm parasitizing in the intestines of humans and animals - all about the treatment of worms
Worms or, scientifically, helminths - a large group of representatives of lower worms, capable of living in the human body, causing parasitic diseases - helminthiases. Helminths are divided into three classes: roundworms, tapeworms and flukes. Almost 200 species of helminths can affect the human body, however, only about 20 species are found on the territory of Russia. The degree of helminths distribution is affected primarily by climatic conditions and the level of socio-economic development Therefore, in developed countries, the incidence of helminthiases is much lower than in countries of tropical and subtropical belt.
Depending on the route of transmission, the helminthiases are divided into three groups: biohelminthoses (transmitted to humans through animals), geogelmintosis (part of the development of helminth occurs in the soil) and contagious (transmitted from the infected person).
The most destructive effect on the body is provided by larval and developing forms of worms. While the adult helminth has, as a rule, a stable location in the body - the larva is able to make difficult trips to the organs, leaving them painful changes. The favorite habitat of worms is the gastrointestinal tract, and different species prefer certain departments for their dwelling, for example, ascarids - the initial sections of the small intestine, pinworms - in the lower sections of the thin and initial sections of the large intestine, vlasoglav - in the initial section of the thick guts. Depending on the location of the parasite, helminthiases can be divided into luminary (the parasite lives in the lumen of the hollow organ) and the tissue (the parasite is in the thickness of the tissues). Some helminthiases (for example, ascariasis) in different stages can have both tissue and luminal forms.
Symptoms of worms:
The acute stage coincides with the time of introduction and development of the parasite and is manifested, mainly by the immune response to foreign antigens, by allergic reactions. Symptoms of this stage of helminthiosis are similar when introducing various types of parasites.
The first signs of the development of helminthiosis may occur from 2-3 days (with ascariasis), before, years (with filariasis). More often this period is 2-3 weeks. At the beginning of the disease, rashes on the skin, enlargement of the lymph nodes, enlargement of the liver and spleen, pain in the muscles and joints appear. Some helminthiases are characterized by specific signs, for example jaundice for opisthorchiasis (hepatic fluke) or fever, muscle pain, facial edema and eyelids for trichinosis.
With trichocephalosis - it's hemorrhagic (with hemorrhages) colitis. With ankylostomiasis - iron deficiency anemia. With ascariasis, mechanical obstruction of the intestine and bile ducts can occur. In helminthiases with liver damage, chronic hepatitis, inflammation of the biliary tract (cholecystitis, cholangitis) develops. A special place is occupied by helminthiases with the development of cysts (fluid formations in the membrane): echinococcosis, alveococcosis, cysticercosis. Even large-sized cysts may not manifest themselves at all, but their suppuration or rupture leads to severe consequences such as anaphylactic shock, peritonitis, purulent pleurisy.
Diagnosis of helminthiases:
Due to the variety of species and manifestations of the disease, careful attentiveness and careful questioning of the patient, which help to identify possible causes of infection, are of great importance. The study of biological materials (feces, rectal mucus, bile, contents of the duodenum, blood, sputum from the lungs, muscle tissue) is carried out in order to identify in them whole or fragments of parasites, their eggs. When carrying out simple clinical blood tests, the idea of parasites may be caused by an increased amount of one of the leucocyte types - eosinophils. In a number of cases, more complex immunological studies of blood are carried out, in order to detect antibodies to some parasites. X-ray and ultrasound studies, computed tomography, and endoscopy can be of great help in diagnosis.
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Cycles of development of parasitic worms
Cycles of development of parasitic worms.
Ascarid parasitizes in the human intestine. Ascarids can reach quite large sizes: females grow to 20-40 cm, males up to 15 - 25 cm. These roundworms are retained in the intestine. moving towards food, tk. they do not have attachment organs.
The body of the ascaris is covered with multilayer flexiblecuticle.This dense cover protects the worm from mechanical influences, gastric enzymes, poisonous substances. Next ishypodermis- a special layer of granular epithelial cells. The hypoderm is located longitudinal muscles.
The sense organs of ascarids are poorly developed: there is onlytactile tuberclesaround the mouth. The ascarid feeds on the half-digested food of the host, it first gets through the mouth opening with three lips-rolls in a short throat. Then it moves to the mid-gut. where it is digested and digested. Undigested food falls intohindgut. theanal opening.
Ascaris -dioeciousanimals. The reproductive system of the male is one testis, which passes into the seminal duct. The females have two ovaries, from which two oviducts pass, passing into the uterus. The sexual opening of the roundworm females is one and is located on the ventral side of the body. The females are larger in size than the male, and its posterior end is bent.
The female lays in the human intestine up to 24, 00 eggs a day. They are excreted from the body with calves. Eggs of worms are very resistant to many unfavorable conditions: they are covered with 5 shells and can be destroyed only with the help of substances that dissolve fat: gasoline, alcohol, hot water or direct solar rays.
It is interesting that the development of the roundworm occurs without a change of owners. On the 16th to 17th day in eggs caught in moist soil. at a temperature of 25-27 0 C, the larva develops.
In order not to become the owner of ascarids, it is necessary to thoroughly wash vegetables and fruits, drink only boiled water, t. It is through dirty products and water that the eggs of these nematodes enter the human body. Do not forget to wash your hands with soap before meals, and also protect food from insects (they too can be carriers of ascarids).
Once in the human intestine, the worm larvae penetrate through the walls of the intestine into the blood vessels, reaching the heart and lungs. Coughing larvae, the host again swallows them. Worms remain in the small intestine and reach adulthood.
Ascarids bring enormous harm to the human body, poisoning it with poisonous metabolic products. Worms also injure the mucous membrane of the human intestine. Infected with ascarids, it pains in the stomach. frustration, loses appetite and efficiency.
The body of the bull's chain is very elongated and reaches a length of up to 3 m. It is ribbon-shaped and consists of segments, the number of which reaches several hundred attached to a tiny head. On the head are the suckers and hooks, which serve to attach to the intestinal wall. Segments at the back end of the chain contain many ripened eggs, they periodically come off and with feces fall outside.
Mature segments, filled with eggs, are separated from the body of the parasite and together with the calves of man (he isthe main owner)are output to the outside. By this time, within the egg under the egg shells develops a larva, carrying six hooks. - oncosphere. In the event that eggs of the parasite fall on grass or in hay, they can be swallowed by cattle(intermediate host).Upon ingestion into the stomach, the egg shells are destroyed, and the oncosphere enters its cavity and penetrates the bloodstream through the mucous membrane of the small intestine. With the current of blood oncospheres are carried along the body of the animal and fall into all vital organs (liver, heart, lungs, etc.). Here the oncosphere turns into a Finn (cysticerc) - a bubble filled with a liquid inside which the parasite's head is screwed.
When eating half-baked, inadequately cooked or poorly cooked finnish meat, the Finn (cysticercus) gets into the stomach of the person (its main host), its head is turned outward and with the help of suction cups is fixed on the walls of thin intestines. After this, the growth of the worm begins: the new segments form at the base of the neck and gradually move back. Over time, the terminal segments ripen. filled with eggs, separated, and the cycle closes.
Bovine tapeworm, like all other parasitic tapeworms, causes great harm to the owner's health, causing anemia, general intoxication of the body, exhaustion, which can even lead to death.
The hepatic trematode is a flat helminth of fairly large size (3 to 5 cm in length) with two suckers: the oral and abdominal suckers. It is a fairly common hepatic parasite, the fluke is often found in the bile ducts, gall bladder, ducts of the pancreas of man. as well as wild and domestic animals. There are many types of hepatic trematode, but they all develop in a similar way and are dangerous in that they disrupt the internal organs of the host.
The structure of an adult specimen of the liver trematode
Cycle development of the parasite. In the sexually mature state, the trematode lives in the bile ducts in cattle, other mammals and humans. They are the ultimate masters of the parasite. The intermediate owner is the mollusk small pond.
Eggs of the liver trematode, along with bile, enter the intestine of the host, and from there to the external environment. For further development, the eggs must fall into the water. In the water from the egg leaves a larva covered with cilia. She swims, then penetrates into the body of the freshwater pond. In his body, the larva turns into a shapeless sac. in which several generations of embryos are formed. That is, at the stage of the larva, there is further asexual reproduction. The larvae leave the body of the pond snake and again enter the water. They actively swim with the tail, settle in the coastal vegetation of the reservoir. They throw off the tail, secrete the shell around them and turn into a cyst. By eating coastal grass, pets swallow parasites. In their intestines, cysts dissolve, parasites enter the intestinal walls, enter the bloodstream, and enter the blood vessels of the liver with blood flow, penetrate into the bile ducts. A person can become infected with larvae of the trematode when using water from a reservoir. To prevent infection, water from the pool should be boiled. When using raw, non-salted or under-processed fish, parasites find themselves in the body of their final host. Getting into the body of a person. the worm very quickly finds its place in the liver, gall bladder or pancreas, just a couple of weeks reaches puberty and within a month begins to actively multiply.
Life cycle of the liver fluke
Opisthorchiasis is a dangerous disease, the causative agent of which is the hepatic trematode. Treatment of opisthorchiasis, as a rule, includes a whole complex of measures. because during his short stay in the body helminth has time to almost completely disrupt the work of the liver.
Sources: http://zhkt.guru/glisty-2/vidy-10/soliter-cepen/v-organizme-2, http://voxholl.ru/krugliy-cherv-glist-parazitiruyushiy-v-kishechnike-cheloveka-i-zhivotnih.html, http://moyamatem.ru/cikli-razvitiya-paraziticheskih-chervej/index.html
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