What is a violation of the intestinal biocenosis?
Analysis of the biocenosis of the intestine
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It is necessary to consult with a specialist!
What is the intestinal biocenosis?
The biocenosis of the intestine is a collection of microorganisms that colonize the small and large intestines. To the normal intestinal flora are bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, E. coli, bacteroides, enterococci. All other microorganisms are either conditionally pathogenic (they can cause the development of pathology with a decrease in the local immunity and a decrease in the amount of normoflora), or pathogenic, which are the causative agents of infectious intestinal diseases.
Negative impact on the biocenosis of the intestine has the following factors: irrational administration of antibiotics, anti-cancer treatment (chemotherapy and radiation), digestive system diseases, unbalanced nutrition, stress.
What is the purpose of this study?
"Useful" microorganisms perform a number of important functions in the digestive tract: they participate in the process of digesting food, stimulate peristalsis intestines, synthesize B vitamins, vitamin K, promote the formation of local immunity, resist pathogenic microbes, viruses, mushrooms. Therefore, any changes in the microflora may affect the functioning of the digestive tract and the state of human health in general. And the doctor, in order to identify these disorders and to appoint the right treatment, resorts to the study of the intestinal biocenosis.
At what complaints is it necessary to check the intestines?
The study of the biocenosis of the intestine is indicated in the presence of abdominal pain, swelling, rumbling, prolonged disorders of the stool, nausea. In addition, doctors recommend to examine the intestines of allergic people, as well as people with various skin diseases.
In young children, indications for the study of intestinal biocenosis are colic, insufficient weight gain, change in the consistency and color of the stool (greenish color, mucus, etc.), frequent respiratory infections, allergic dermatitis.
Therapists, gastroenterologists, allergologists, pediatricians give a direction for this research. You can take the analysis in microbiological laboratories of state medical institutions and private diagnostic centers.
How to properly collect the material for the study?
The material for studying the biocenosis of the intestine is feces. It must be necessarily freshly picked, namely, the morning, because the laboratory takes the feces only in the morning. Defecation should be done in a clean boiled container, and already from there recruit material for laboratory analysis. Delivery of the material to the medical institution is necessary within a maximum of 3 hours after its collection. Collect the feces should be in a disposable sterile container with a special spatula, filling the container by about one third. Thus it is impossible to break sterility.
Another condition is that you should not mix faeces with urine and collect it after laxatives, enemas, injection of suppositories or other medications into the rectum. If you are addicted to constipation, you need to tell the doctor about this, and he will prescribe a special diet that promotes the emptying of the intestine.
In the form of the result of the analysis, which usually contains information on normal indicators, the laboratory doctor gives the names of all the microorganisms found and their number. Further, the attending physician will interpret the results and establish the degree of severity of the dysbiosis. At the first degree, the amount of normoflora is reduced, and there are microorganisms with altered properties (eg, hemolytic colibacillus). At the second degree in a feces there is a small amount of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms on the background of general oppression of normal flora. For the third degree, a large number of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and a significant decrease in the number of normal microorganisms are characteristic.
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Biocoenosis of the intestine in newborns
The intestine of a healthy person is populated with a variety of different microorganisms, without which normal vital activity is impossible.
The biocenosis of the intestine is the quantitative and qualitative composition of its microflora, that is, the microorganisms inhabiting it.
There are 3 phases of microbial colon colonization in the first month after birth:
- 1-st phase, aseptic, lasts 10-20 hours;
- The 2nd phase - the settlement phase - lasts up to 2-4 days;
- The third phase is a period of stabilization of microflora.
As a rule, among the first microorganisms that colonize the intestine of a newborn, the E. coli dominates. This representative of normal intestinal microflora is 96% of its aerobic component and has a high lactase activity. The more active the E. coli colonizes the intestine, the less ecological niche it leaves for pathogenic microorganisms. At 5-7 days, aerobic microorganisms, reproducing with the use of oxygen, impoverish the intestinal environment. Then the expansion of the anaerobic component of the microflora begins, which enters the gastrointestinal tract of the child with milk. It is mainly represented by such irreplaceable microorganisms in enzymatic activity as lacto- and bifidobacteria. In addition to them, the intestinal flora of a newborn is represented by staphylococci (60-70%), esherichia (50%), mushrooms (40-45%), hemolytic enterococci (5-7%) and enterobacteria (15-20%), protea (10%) and others.
The role of normal intestinal biocenosis is extremely large and diverse. First, by virtue of its antagonistic, towards pathogenic intestinal microorganisms, properties of normal intestinal microflora is one of the main factors of anti-infection protection organism. Secondly, the normal microflora promotes the formation of short-chain fatty acids, which, being the main provide normal trophism of the intestinal mucosa, reduce its permeability to various antigens.
Violation of the microbiocenosis of the intestine leads to a disruption of its motor, digestive and absorbing functions. With dysbacteriosis, the supply of plastic and energy material to the body is limited, the intake of toxins and allergens is increased, all types of metabolism and immunity are violated. In early childhood, dysbacteriosis of the intestine, in addition to the formation of chronic diseases of the digestive tract, also contributes to the development dystrophy, anemia, vitamin deficiency, food allergy, secondary immunodeficiency state, as well as generalization of the infectious process, up to septicopyemia.
To the most significant reasons leading to the violation of the intestinal microflora, we can refer:
- Medical effects (antibacterial agents, hormonal and radiotherapy, surgery, medication and others).
- The nutritional factor (deficiency of dietary fiber, food intake, containing antibacterial components, preservatives, colorants and other substances, unbalanced and irregular in the composition of the components of nutrition and / or a sharp change in its diet and mode).
- Stresses of different origin.
- Decreased immune status.
- Violation of biorhythms, long trips and so on.
- Diseases and malformations of internal organs, especially the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Acute infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Studies show that in healthy newborns, when they are together with their mother in maternity hospital already in the first day of life in 23% of cases in meconium bifidobacteria are detected in quantities 104 / g. At separate stay with mother of newborns in a maternity hospital, and also at children born sick, colonization of meconium is marked not only by bifidobacteria, but also enterococci (67% of children in the first two days of life), coagulase-negative staphylococci (66% of children), haemolytic E. coli strains (33%) and Candida fungi (1/3 of cases).
Thus, the first half of life is the most responsible and tense period of the development of intestinal microbiocenosis. Any surgical intervention on the gastrointestinal tract during the neonatal period followed by antibiotic therapy and long-term impossibility of enteral nutrition leads to violations of the process of becoming biocenosis of the intestine. Therefore, it seems rational to begin a comprehensive correction of the dysbiotic phenomena as early as possible in the postoperative period. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- Microbiologically confirmed intestinal dysbacteriosis is detected in all patients with congenital obstruction of the upper digestive tract in the early period after surgical treatment.
- In the absence of drug therapy, biocenosis disorders persist even in the late postoperative period.
- Adequate drug correction of dysbacteriosis already by the 7th week from its beginning leads to a significant improvement in the state of the intestinal biocenosis, and by 3-6 months to its full normalization.
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Normal biocenosis of the intestine and degree of dysbiosis
Dysbacteriosis until recently was one of the most common diagnoses in domestic pediatrics and infectology. At the same timedysbiosisas the nosological form is not represented in the ICD-X, moreover, as a diagnosis it is absent and in the practice of Western doctors.
Apparently, at present there is a discrepancy between scientific ideas about the normal biocenosis of the intestine and the factors contributing to its violation, on the one hand, and the lack of adequate clinical and microbiological diagnosis, as well as a clear clinical and microbiological interpretation of dysbacteriosis - with other. In addition, which is especially important, the diagnosis of dysbiosis is usually hiddenother diseases of the digestive system .
- intestinal infection;
- antibiotic-associated diarrhea;
- radiation sickness;
- chronic inflammatory bowel disease;
- irritable bowel syndrome;
- malabsorption syndrome;
- gastroesophageal reflux;
- intolerance to cow's milk proteins;
- eosinophilic enteritis and other, more rare pathology.
Some clinicians are trying to share termsdysbiosisanddysbiosis. In this case, dysbacteriosis is estimated as a microbiological concept, and dysbiosis is associated with clinical disorders in the form of local and then general symptoms.
Dysbacteriosis is usually calledquantitative and qualitative violation of the composition of normal microflora. Diagnosis of it is based primarily on the results of the studycolon microflora. while studying the luminal flora, because it is available for analysis. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of microbial luminal flora (feces) form the basis of the diagnosis of dysbacteriosis; Thus, the bacteriological diagnosis turns into clinical.
Stool examination for dysbiosisis laborious and quite expensive. Let's analyze its informativeness.
In clinical practice, as a rule, we use the interpretation of a limited spectrum of the intestinal microflora (Table).
Normal indicators of the microflora of stool in children
The role of disorders of intestinal microflora in the etiopathogenesis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract Current trends in therapy
The role of disorders of intestinal microflora in the etiopathogenesis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract Current trends in therapy
Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract
There are no anaerobes
Aerobes: streptococci, lactobacilli, enterobacteria, staphylococci
3. Uterine gut: 105-108 in 1 g of contents
Anaerobes: bacterioids, bifidobacteria
Aerobes: streptococci, lactobacilli, staphylococci, enterococci, fungi
AT. Cecum: 010-1012 in 1 g of contents
Anaerobes: bacterioids, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, clostridia
Aerobes: streptococci, lactobacilli, staphylococci, enterobacteria, fungi
Basic functions of normal intestinal microflora
1. Protective - parietal microflora, increasing colonization resistance of the intestinal wall, prevents colonization of the intestine by a pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora
2. Fermentoprodutsiruyuschaya - carries out the hydrolysis of cellulose, proteins, fats, starch, deconjugation of bile acids, etc.
3. Synthetic - synthesis of vitamins of group B, C, amino acids, cholesterol, uric acid, organic acids
4. Immunizing - supports the synthesis of immunoglobulins, mediates the maturation and functioning of immunocompetent organs
Types of disorders of intestinal microflora
Conditionally pathogenic microflora
Dysbacteriosis. Qualitative and quantitative changes in intestinal microflora. There are three degrees of dysbiosis, which can be both an independent disease, and accompany the disease of the colon. The reason for the development of dysbiosis is a violation of food digestion, prolonged stool retention in the large intestine. The intestinal microflora also changes as a result of uncontrolled intake of antibiotics, which suppress it. Weakening of immunity is important in the development of the disease.
Characteristic of a decrease in appetite, unpleasant taste in the mouth, nausea, bloating, smell from the mouth, upset of the stool, general malaise. The stool has an unpleasant putrefactive smell. Body temperature may increase.
Dysbacteriosis is diagnosed according to the results of bacteriological examination of feces.
Treatment.Abolition of antibiotics and treatment of the underlying disease. Cultures of bacterial preparations are used: colibacterin, bactisubtil, etc. Vitamins are recommended.
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Biocenosis of the intestine
The microbial diversity that the large intestine inhabits is called the biocenosis of the intestine. The main functions of microorganisms are: the formation of neuromediators, detoxification, stimulation peristalsis of the intestine, energy, trophic, formation of human immunity, participation in the process digestion.
When the composition of the microflora is disturbed, a person develops a dysbacteriosis. Dysbacteriosis is a qualitative and quantitative violation of the normal composition of microflora.
The main causes and risk factors for the infringement of the intestinal biocenosis are:
Disturbance of nutrition (consumption of high-carbohydrate, poor-quality and other food).
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Diseases of the digestive system.
Symptoms of disorders of the intestinal biocenosis are such common manifestations as obesity or weight loss, discoloration of the face, increased fatigue, weakness, as well as stool disorders (diarrhea or constipation), pain in the stomach.
The study of the microflora of the colon is carried out for the diagnosis of intestinal biocenosis disorders. Dysbacteriosis happens four degrees and it depends on what changes in the microflora of the large intestine have occurred. To restore normalbiocenosis of the intestineit is necessary to eliminate the cause that caused it. Treatment should be comprehensive and include: stimulation of immunity, regulation of intestinal motility, intake of enzyme preparations, priobiotics. as well as the development of an individual nutrition program.
For the timely detection and treatment of the disease with symptoms of the disease should consult a gastroenterologist.
Sources: www.myshared.ru, www.plaintest.com, rpp.nashaucheba.ru, netbolezni.msk.ru, goldstarinfo.ru
Sources: http://www.apreka.ru/?a=issledovanie_biotsenoza_kishechnika, http://meddoc.com.ua/biocenoz-kishechnika-u-novorozhdennyx/, http://gem-prokto.ru/publ/bolezni_kishechnika/kolichestvennoe_narushenie_mikroflory_tolstogo_kishechnika_simptomy/15-1-0-1494
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