Causes, treatment and symptoms of papillomavirus infection
Papillomavirus infection (PVI) refers to the most common urogenital infections of a viral nature, transmitted directly by sexual contact..
Characteristic manifestations of papillomavirus infection include papillomas, warts and genital warts.Even in the absence of symptoms, HPV is quite dangerous and cunning. Every year, the number of patients with this disease, especially among women, is increasing. According to statistics, in 90% of cases, women are infected with HPV in their reproductive years, the cases of infection of men are much less common, the symptoms of the disease are slightly easier.
- 1Risk factors
- 2Symptomatology of the disease
- 4.2Destructive methods
- 4.4Nonspecific antiviral drugs
Papillomavirus infection is detected in a disordered sexual life, the absence of a permanent partner, ignoring barrier contraception, as well as those women who started early sexual relations.
In addition, the catalyst for activating HPV in the body are alcohol abuse, smoking and other bad habits. Symptoms of the disease are manifested by inflammatory processes and the progression of immunosuppressive symptoms.
It is important to consider that it is HPV that leads to the development of malignant tumors (cancer of the uterine neck, squamous cell carcinoma, etc.), so you should know when and how to treat the papillomavirus infection.
Infection is possible not only with intimate relationships, but also in the implementation of medical procedures, as well as during labor. To date, there are confirmed data on the infection of medical personnel when the virus carrier was treated.
The development of papillomavirus infection in men and women often occurs as a result of co-occurring diseases (urogenital chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis, mycoplasmosis, etc.), which weaken immune system. At the same time, HPV infection can develop rapidly, and traditional therapy does not promote remission..
A combination of diseases of the genital area and papillomavirus genital or skin infection lead to, that more prolonged and aggressive treatment is required, and in especially severe cases and surgical intervention.
In addition to the above factors, activation of papillomavirus infection occurs with a general decrease in immune protection of the body due to hypothermia, hormonal disorders, medical manipulation (abortion, installation of the Navy and etc.). The most vulnerable to a viral attack are pregnant women and patients with hypovitaminosis.
Symptomatology of the disease.
Papillomavirus infection is characterized by the appearance in the anogenital areas of genital warts (papillomas) and genital warts.
As a rule, these manifestations are asymptomatic and are detected by chance, during a gynecological examination. In 90% of cases, cancerous growths due to HPV infection are due to the 16th and 18th types of the virus.
Most often with HPV infection, a woman is confronted with poor bloody vaginal discharge, burning with the act of urination, tenderness in the suprapubic region, and also on the external genitalia bodies. In some cases, the discharge may have an unpleasant odor.
The duration of the incubation period of the disease depends on the virus type, as well as a combination of internal and external factors.
Diagnostic examination allows for the timely detection and cure of all types of genital warts and genital warts.
In order to exclude oncological neoplasms the following diagnostic methods are used:
- Puff smear (from the Pap test) from the cervix to the definition of neoplasia caused by PVI.
- Regardless of the confirmed PVI for all women, biopsies and colposcopy are performed.
- To detect papillomatosis, acanthosis and parakeratosis, a histological examination of smears is recommended.
- Survey PCR (polymerase chain reaction), which allows to identify certain types of the virus, and then cure them with the help of adequate therapy.
PCR allows to predict the likelihood of development of cancerous tumors. However, one should not forget that most often the oncogenic type of the virus causes transient (carrier) infection. In addition, PCR is not recommended for women under 30 years of age, since this group of patients is extremely rare in cervical cancer.
Methods for determining the development and course of a viral infection with a 100% guarantee do not exist, so when performing a diagnosis, the whole complex of laboratory tests is evaluated.
Despite the fact that scientists all over the world are engaged in the search for an effective anti-PVI drug, nobody has managed to completely cure it to this day. In rare cases, papillomavirus infection gradually calms down independently, without even requiring specific therapy. However, most often the elimination of the virus is very problematic and requires the efforts of the patient and the doctor.
Treatment of HPV involves the following activities:
- First of all, risk factors that weaken the immune system of the body are eliminated;
- treatment is aimed at suppressing the causative agent of the pathological process and eliminating the causes that contribute to its spread;
- correction of general and local immunity by vaccination is prescribed.
A recombinant (hybrid) vaccine is used to control the high-oncogenic type of HPV, the effect of which is explained by the suppression of oncogenic proteins (E7 and E6) by enhancing the cellular synthesis of proteins. To carry out the vaccination, it is recommended to use a / m-suspension of Gardasil and a / c suspension of Cervarix, which activate antibodies against highly-ionogenic viral proteins.
In addition to vaccination, combined treatment is recommended:
combined treatment of papillomavirus infection provides for the appointment of nonspecific antiviral therapy, immunomodulators, destructive and chemical treatment..
This technique involves the treatment of HPV using cryodestruction, electrodestruction. In addition, laser and plasma resection and radiowave excision of genital warts are actively used.
Treatment with chemical means provides:
- use of Trichloroacetate;
- alcoholic solution (cream 5%) Podophyllotoxin;
- 5-fluorouracil 5% cream;
- Solkoderma and Vartek;
These drugs are used only externally and contribute to the removal of papillomas.
Nonspecific antiviral drugs
Treatment of HPV is carried out by such drugs as:
- Intron-A, Cycloferon;
- Leukinferon, Neovir;
- gel Allomedin.
This group of drugs in the treatment of HPV is the most safe and convenient to use.
These drugs are used to strengthen the immune system and prevent the development of viral infections.
Most often with papillomaviruses, the following is prescribed:
- Isonoprinosine, Immunomax;
- Likopida, Panavira;
- Glutoxim, Derinata;
- Epigen-intima, Amiksin;
Papillomavirus infection is most dangerous because of the significant growth of malignant neoplasm among women, high contagiousness and a decrease in reproductive capacity, so timely treatment and prevention of this disease is recommended.
Observing preventive measures to prevent papillomavirus infection, it is possible to reduce the likelihood of a benign tumor degenerating into a malignant tumor.
- timely access to a doctor to identify infectious foci of HPV and the causes of its occurrence;
- antiviral vaccination (for girls, before sexual intercourse);
- performance of diagnostic screening, which allows to cure the disease in the early stages of development;
- an effective way to prevent the spread of viral infection is the use of contraception by both partners and the identification of virus carriers.
Enlightenment work among teenagers in the form of thematic and explanatory conversations is of great importance. Young people should fully understand what HPV is, what ways of its transmission exist and what consequences the virus can bring.
It must be remembered that the cells infected with papillomavirus in the body are in two different states: episomal and intrasomal, which is determined by screening.
The episomal form of the disease is not interconnected with the chromosomal DNA of the cell, and the intrasomal form, in fact, is a viral DNA that is embedded in the genome of the cell. It is the intrasomal development of the virus that provokes the degeneration of benign papilloma into a malignant neoplasm. This development of HPV is observed in 5% of patients during the first 5 years from the onset of the disease.
However, episomal development of the virus is not a cause for complacency, therefore in both cases (even with benign tumor development) it is necessary to seek advice and examination doctor-dermatologist.
Finally, the body can not be cured of HPV, but this does not mean that you should not treat PVI, including including radical methods to ensure that in the future harmless papilloma does not cause a development cancer. Modern methods, which are used to treat PVI, significantly reduce the activity of HPV infection, saving the life and work capacity of the patient.