Sulfonamide drugs acting in the lumen of the intestine
Sulfanilamide preparation (acting in the lumen of the intestine)
After ingestion, ampicillin is poorly absorbed from the digestive tract. Food further reduces the absorption of the drug. Ampicillin penetrates the bronchial secretion, the paranasal sinuses, the middle ear, spinal fluid. Ampicillin is excreted in breast milk, penetrates into the amniotic fluid.
Indications for useInfectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms sensitive to the preparation, including: bronchitis;
pneumonia; dysentery; salmonellosis, whooping cough; pyelonephritis; endocarditis; meningitis;
sepsis.Side effectAllergic reactions (urticaria, erythema, Quincke's edema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, rarely - fever, joint pain, eosinophilia, extremely rarely anaphylactic shock). Possible toxic effect on; dyspeptic phenomena, candidiasis, intestinal dysbiosis.
Amoxicillin- a broad spectrum antibiotic from the group of semisynthetic penicillins. The effect is very fast. Like other penicillin antibiotics, it depresses the synthesis of the cell wall. Amoxicillin acts bactericidal and
To Amoxicillin, strains of microorganisms that produce beta-lactamases are stable. Amoxicillin is acid-fast and therefore effective for oral administration.IndicationsBacterial infections caused by susceptible to Amoxicillin pathogens: - acute and chronic infections of the respiratory tract (angina, acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis; acute and chronic bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, lung abscess); - acute and chronic infections of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts (peritonitis, cholecystitis, intestinal infections); - Acute and chronic infections of the urinary system (pyelonephritis, urethritis, gonorrhea);
- Purulent infections of soft tissues; - sepsis. Side effect is the same as the ampits.
Benzoyl peroxide (Proderm, Desquam)
Upon contact with tissues, oxidants decompose with the liberation of atomic oxygen,
Possessing strong oxidizing properties
Catalysts - catalase (there are many of them in a purulent environment, where microorganisms are present and multiply).
Atomic oxygenacts bactericidal.
Molecular oxygenis released in the form of bubbles, mechanically cleanses the wound.
Used 3% hydrogen peroxide solution (perhydrol - 30% solution !only to obtain 3% of r-ra)
Primary treatment of infected wounds, purulent wounds (3%)
Lubrication of the mucosa in angina, stomatitis (,%)
Complex compound with urea (1 tab dissolved in a glass of water). The indications are the same.
C ai lia p e rm a g a n a t
Atomic oxygenIt is a more powerful oxidant, because
From its molecule in an acidic medium is separated 5 atoms, and in the alkaline - 3 atoms of oxygen.
Molecular oxygen does not release.
Most bacteria die within an hour when exposed to potassium permanganate in the form, 1% r-ra.
Rinsing of the mouth and throat (, 1%)
Treatment of infected wounds and burns (, %)
Cauterization of ulcerous surfaces (2-5%)
Gastric lavage with morphine and phosphorus poisoning(, 2 %)
"Desquam" (2.5% gel, 5% lotion, 10% soap)
"Benzakne" treatment of seborrhea and youth acne
Characteristics of the substance Sulfadimidine
Sulfanilamid short (medium duration) action.
Pharmacological action - antimicrobial, antibacterial, bacteriostatic .
It blocks the acceptance of paraaminobenzoic acid by microorganisms and stops the synthesis of folate (sulfonamides are captured by a microbial cell instead of paraaminobenzoic acid). It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative cocci,Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. Klebsiella spp. Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium paraperfringens, Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Yersinia pestis, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) spp. Actinomyces israelii, Toxoplasma gondii.Quickly absorbed from the digestive tract (mainly in the small intestine), 75-86% binds to plasma proteins. It penetrates well into tissues (including the lungs, cerebrospinal fluid), is quickly excreted from the body, T1 / 2 - 5-7 hours; elimination is carried out mainly by the kidneys through glomerular filtration. In the liver is subjected to biotransformation (acetylation), acetylated metabolites with concentration in urine can precipitate. The solubility of metabolites is improved by basifying urine.
Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by sensitive microflora: tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, inflammatory diseases of the bile and urinary tract, wound infection, gonorrhea, erysipelas, dysentery, toxoplasmosis, nocardiosis.
Nausea, vomiting, crystalluria, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, allergic reactions.
Against the background of treatment, there is a profuse alkaline drink; with prolonged use, a systematic control of the blood test is necessary.
Sulfanilamide preparation (acting in the lumen of the intestine)
Pharmacological action - antimicrobial .
In the small intestine decomposes to form sulfatiazole (norsulfazole), the latter competes with parahaminobenzoic acid for participating in the synthesis of folic acid in a microbial cell and stops him. Phthalylsulfatiazole with antimicrobial activity(in vitro)does not possess. After oral administration, it is practically not absorbed. In the small intestine under the influence of aminopeptidases gradually cleaves sulfatiazole, which, without having time to adsorb, provides high antimicrobial efficacy in intestinal infections. It is mainly derived from feces. A small (absorbed) amount (5-10% of the dose) is evenly distributed in the body, acetylated in the liver and excreted in the urine. Phthalazole is low in toxicity; side effects usually do not cause. By action is similar to sulgin. Spect; ramm + .expert, dentistry, muscular inf.
Sulfonamides acting in the lumen of the intestine
Sulfonamides. acting in the lumen of the intestine, are practically not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and create high concentrations in the lumen of the intestine, so they are used in the treatment of intestinal infections (bacillary dysentery, enterocolitis), as well as for the prevention of intestinal infection in the postoperative period. However, at present many strains of intestinal pathogens have become resistant to sulfonamides. To increase the effectiveness of treatment simultaneously with sulfonamides acting in the lumen of the intestine, it is advisable to appoint well absorbed drugs (Etazol, Sulfadimezin, etc.), as causative agents of intestinal infections are localized not only in the lumen, but also in the wall intestines. When taking this group of drugs, B vitamins should be prescribed, since sulfonamides inhibit the growth of E. coli involved in the synthesis of B vitamins
Phtalylsulfatiazole (Ftalazol) - Sulfonamide preparation.
Phthalazol is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The bulk of the drug when administered orally is retained in the intestine, where the active (sulfanilamide) part of the molecule gradually cleaves. The high concentration of sulfanilamide in the intestine, combined with the activity of the drug against the intestinal flora, is explained by its greater effectiveness in intestinal infections.
Indications for use:Dysentery (intestinal disease caused by protozoa), colitis (inflammation of the large intestine), gastroenteritis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and small intestine), operations on the intestine. 4-6 once a day.
Side effects and complications.The use of phthalazole complications are extremely rare. Allergic reactions are possible, which should be reported to the doctor. Perhaps the development of dysbiosis in connection with the suppression of normal intestinal microflora.
Antimicrobial bacteriostatic agent, sulfonamide. The mechanism of action is due to antagonism with PABA and competitive inhibition of dihydropteroate synthetase, which leads to a disruption in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid necessary for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Oppresses the growth of E. coli and reduces the synthesis of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, etc. in the intestine.
Indications:Bacterial dysentery, colitis, enterocolitis; preparation for operations on the large intestine.
Contraindications:Hypersensitivity, hyperbilirubinemia (in children), deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nephrourolythiasis, porphyria, B12-deficiency anemia, pregnancy, lactation period, neonatal period, thoracic age.
Side effects:Nausea, vomiting, crystalluria, allergic reactions (hives, exfoliative dermatitis), hypovitaminosis B, leukopenia, neuritis.
Sulfonamide preparations - names
Preparations of the sulfonamide group were invented quite a long time ago, and today they practically lost their significance, are inferior in effectiveness to modern antibiotics. Also, their limited use is due to the high toxicity and resistance of certain bacteria to them. But nevertheless at treatment of some diseases these agents are still applied.
Sulfanilamides are synthetic drugs that are active against a wide range of pathogens, including:
The effect of drugs containing sulfonamides is based on their ability to disrupt the formation of acids produced by microorganisms and necessary for their development. These drugs are prescribed for various diseases: infections of the respiratory system and ENT organs, genitourinary and Gastrointestinal infections, dermatological infections, etc. Consider what preparations belong to the group sulfonamides (names).
List of drugs-sulfonamides
- sulfonamide (streptocide) - practically not used today due to low efficiency and high toxicity;
- sulfadimidine (sulfadimezin) - a less toxic drug, but also not very active;
- sulfarabamide (urosulfan) - previously widely used in the treatment of infections of the genitourinary system;
- sulfadiazine (sulfazine) - more active than other sulfonamides, creates high concentrations in the blood;
- sulfamethoxazole - penetrates well into various organs and tissues;
- sulfadimethoxin - a long-acting agent;
- sulfamonomethoxin - relatively low toxicity;
- . sulfadoxine - used to treat malaria in combination with antimetabolitepyrimethamine;
- sulfamethoxypyridazine - is used in the treatment of acute respiratory infections, pneumonia. bronchitis, etc .;
- sulfalene - an agent of super-long-acting;
- sulfaguanidine (sulgin) - effective in the treatment of intestinal infections;
- phtalylsulfatiazole (phthalazole) - creates high concentrations in the lumen of the intestine;
- sulfadiazine silver (dermazin) - a means for topical use;
- sulfasalazine - an intestinal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic agent.
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Sources: http://allrefrs.ru/2-33207.html, http://medlec.org/lek2-26299.html, http://womanadvice.ru/preparaty-sulfanilamidy-nazvaniya
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