Preparations for chemotherapy for bowel cancer


Treatment of rectal cancer chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is one of the methods of effective treatment of cancer.It is used to restrain the growth of malignant tumors and prevent the spread of metastases throughout the body.Chemotherapy for rectal cancer greatly increases the patient's chances of recovery in combination with other methods of combating cancer, such as surgery and radiation therapy.

Effects of drugs

The action of chemotherapy is based on the ability of cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapeutic drugs) to destroy or slow down the division of cancer cells at any stage by means of poisons and toxins included in their composition.

The peculiarity of such drugs is that they affect not only malignant tumors, but also healthy tissues and organs, albeit in a smaller volume. Antineoplastic agents destroy the most active cells - cancerous. But the cells of blood, mucous membranes and gonads belong to the active ones. This is associated with side effects and toxic reactions after the use of chemotherapy.

During the course of chemotherapy, as well as after it, the patient has a number of complications that can be dangerous to his health and even life.In some cases, the dose of injectable drugs can be reduced, but it is impossible to completely avoid the negative consequences after the use of pharmacological drugs. Antineoplastic agents most often cause the following side effects:

  • loss of appetite;
  • a feeling of nausea;
  • the urge to vomit;
  • damage to the oral mucosa (stomatitis);
  • damage to the intestinal mucosa;
  • diarrhea;
  • general weakness, fatigue.

The presence of such symptoms after chemotherapy procedures is an expected phenomenon. The course should not stop or be interrupted due to such manifestations. To minimize the procedures, doctors recommend that you follow a certain diet and take measures to maintain immunity.

Features of therapy

Individual planning of the treatment program for colorectal cancer is performed by a chemotherapist based on specific indicators and results of the patient's analyzes. The course of chemotherapy and its duration depend on the type of malignant tumor, the rate of its proliferation, the stage of the development of the disease, as well as the patient's age and general state of health.


Chemopreparations are also prescribed individually after the necessary tests for the study of the tumor. In each specific case, drugs are selected that will effectively cope with cancer cells with minimal side effects. Targeted choice of cytotoxic agents significantly increases the effectiveness of therapy, which avoids the majority of negative consequences for cancer patients. It is possible to use a single pharmacological drug or a combination of several agents. On this basis distinguish:

  • Monochemotherapy, which involves the use of a single medicine;
  • polychemotherapy, implying the introduction of a complex of drugs.

Chemotherapy for rectal cancer is most often done by injecting. In some cases, chemotherapy drugs are taken in the form of tablets, but this method is considered less effective. Treatment is characterized by cyclicity, which is due to the division of tumor cells, so the course should be repeated after a certain number of days.

Depending on its purpose, it is customary to distinguish the following types of antitumor therapy:

  1. preoperative;
  2. postoperative;
  3. therapeutic;
  4. preventive.

Preoperative therapy

Chemotherapy, the course of which is prescribed to the patient before surgery, is called preoperative or neoadjuvant. It is designed to reduce the size of malignant neoplasm and slow its development and growth. After successful neoadjuvant chemotherapy, it is possible to reduce the amount of surgical intervention and minimize the risk of relapse.

It is worth noting that preoperative chemotherapy for rectal cancer is not effective for all patients. In some cases, it does not bring the expected results due to the individual physiological characteristics of the patient.

As a result, the tumor continues to grow, which can lead to blockage of the intestine, since the course usually lasts quite a long time - about 6 weeks. Therefore, neoadjuvant therapy is prescribed to a patient only after a thorough examination with the help of computer tomography and location, the dynamics of malignant neoplasm in rectum.

If there are no contraindications for the use of chemotherapy before the operation, it can be quite effective, especially when the treatment begins at the initial stage of the disease. In rare cases, complete disappearance of the tumor after the course of procedures.

At the present stage, there is a practice of combining traditional cytostatic agents with new antitumor drugs, the effect of which is directed to:

  • an obstacle to the development of blood vessels in the neoplasm by influencing the growth factor;
  • inhibition of tumor growth due to a blocking effect on the epidermal growth factor, which is responsible for cell growth.

Clinical studies indicate the effectiveness of polychemotherapy even at a late stage of colorectal cancer.

Postoperative therapy

Treatment with antitumor drugs after surgery to remove malignant neoplasm is called adjuvant therapy. This course is assigned to combat micrometastases and prevent recurrent disease. It is standard for patients of the third stage of development of colorectal cancer, as it significantly increases the level of survival and disease-free. It is also effectively used in the second stage of the disease.

The course of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery on the rectum is appointed by the doctor on the basis of the following factors:

  • patient's condition after surgery;
  • presence or absence of risk of further disease progression;
  • the appearance of possible side effects and complications;
  • the age of the patient and his individual physiological characteristics.

It is recommended to begin treatment as soon as possible after surgery.According to the research, the positive result of the effects of chemotherapy decreases with the increase in the period after the operation.

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Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is one of the main and first steps in the treatment. An important condition for successful treatment, as with any other disease, is timely (at an early stage) to detect a malignant tumor and begin treatment.

Rectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases. Every year around the world, this disease is diagnosed in about 1 million. human. About half of the patients die.

Depending on the stage of cancer, the type of treatment is prescribed.


In addition to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are also used.

The method of treatment is appointed depending on the degree and complexity of the disease, various indicators of the patient's overall health and the characteristics of his body.

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer affects the entire body, slowing the growth of a malignant tumor, or killing cancer cells.

Indications for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

Chemotherapy for rectal cancer is prescribed if, during the examination, metastases were found in the lymph nodes that are located around the rectum. In the presence of metastases, surgical treatment is ineffective or even impossible, and so chemotherapy becomes an indispensable and necessary measure.

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is a lengthy process, during which the patient is regularly injected with synthetic substances that destroy cancer cells, thereby slowing the growth of metastases and prolonging life patient.

Another form of these synthetic substances is possible - tablets, which cause less harm to the whole organism and are better absorbed. But the pills are less effective in fighting cancer cells, this form of the drug is prescribed in the initial stages of cancer according to the results of the examination and the prescriptions of the doctor.

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Course of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is carried out at different stages and under different conditions of the disease. The course of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer depends on the parameters of the patient before or after surgery. Depending on the course of the disease, the duration of the course of chemotherapy and its intensity may change.

The goal of the course of chemotherapy is to destroy cancer cells, to slow the growth of metastases. This type of treatment can be used both before and after the operation

Chemotherapy affects the whole body and has various side effects.

Schemes of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

Chemotherapy for rectal cancer is not an alternative to surgical intervention, but a process that precedes it, or a process that accompanies rehabilitation after surgery.

In addition, this type of treatment, such as radiotherapy, is also used.

With surgical intervention, the cause of the disease is removed - a malignant tumor. But if there are already metastases in the radius of the affected organ - they can not be removed surgically. Various drugs compete with them in the course of chemotherapy.

There are several chemotherapy regimens:

  1. adjuvant, which is performed after surgical treatment of a tumor of the rectum;
  2. Neo-adjuvant - is performed before surgery to reduce the number of cancer cells;
  3. Neo-adjuvant chemoraderapia - used after surgery.

Preparations for chemotherapy of colorectal cancer

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer includes a number of drugs that are used in this or that treatment regimen.

The traditional drug is 5-fluorouracil in combination with folinate or calcium leucovarin. In addition, platinum preparations are used.

Such standard drugs today are the most popular and effective, but at the same time, new chemical drugs that can more effectively fight cancer cells and slow the growth of metastases, thereby prolonging life patient.

Traditional drugs that are prescribed for chemotherapy are also xeloda, oxaliplatin, CAMPTO, UFT and others.

According to recent studies, its effectiveness is successfully proven by such a drug as Eloxatin in combination with the aforementioned 5-fluorouracil.

Colon Cancer Treatment

The main method of radical treatment of colon cancer is the surgical removal of a malignant tumor and metastases affected by surrounding tissue. At the 2-3rd stage of colon cancer, combined treatment is most often used: surgery plus chemotherapy, and sometimes radiotherapy.

Radiation therapy

Some types of colorectal cancer, especially those located in the lower-ampullar part of the rectum and anal canal, are sensitive to radiation, so pre-radiotherapy before surgery can reduce the size of the tumor being removed, and also reduces the likelihood of recurrence and metastasis tumor.

Postoperative irradiation is also used for large tumor sizes of the colon and for the spread of the tumor beyond the intestinal wall in order to prevent recurrence of the tumor.

Chemotherapy for colon cancer

Independent use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for tumors of the large intestine is ineffective and is used only in those cases where surgical intervention is not possible by technical indications (an extensive tumor conglomerate involving various organs and parts of the intestine) or on medical grounds (serious concomitant diseases, which are contraindications to operation).

Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is used both before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to reduce the size of the tumor, and after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer can reduce the likelihood of a relapse.

Preparations for chemotherapy of intestinal cancer

In chemotherapy for colorectal cancer for almost forty years, the only drug with proven efficacy was5-fluorouracil.The action of 5-fluorouracil is enhanced when it is combined with leucovorin. Currently, several protocols based on this combination have been developed and are widely used by international recommendations, as well as with use of alternative modern chemotherapy (irinotecan, oxaliplatin, raltitreksid, ftorafur, capecitabine, avastin, erbitux).

Chemotherapists of the European clinic always very carefully approach to the problem of choosing the optimal cancer therapy regimen the patient's health status, concomitant diseases, the effectiveness of the previous treatment.

Depending on the physical condition of the patient and the type of colon cancer, the drugs can be used in the form of monotherapy, and in various combinations. Fundamentally new drugs that inhibit the growth of blood vessels in the tumor are bevacizumaband regorphenib. If the chemotherapy is ineffective, chimeric monoclonal antibodies to the receptors of the epidermal growth factor -cetuximab .

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Surgical methods of treatment

The European clinic has everything to conduct unique operations in colon cancer, including minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. Surgeons-oncologists of the clinic use modern techniques and techniques for performing interventions. Suture materials of the latest generation are used in the work. Learn more about our surgical options for bowel oncology.

When it is impossible to remove the primary tumor, and there is a risk of developing formidable complications associated with the tumor, we also carry out palliative operations. Among them:

  • superposition of bypass anastomosis,
  • imposition of intestinal stoma - ileostomy, transversostoma, sigmistoma
  • and a number of others.

With the development of ascites or hydrothorax, drainage of the abdominal and pleural cavities is possible, in order to remove the fluid.

At the end of the course of treatment for colorectal cancer, the doctor will tell you how often it is necessary to undergo examinations, and also give recommendations for reducing the risks of relapse.

Leading oncologists of the European Clinic for the treatment of colorectal cancer

Surgeon-doctor, MD professor, laureate of the RF Government Prize

Surgeon-oncologist, Candidate of Medical Sciences. Head of the Coloproctology Department

Surgeon oncologist, Ph.D.



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