Adenocarcinoma of the large intestine
Malignant foci in the large intestine can be located in all its parts (colonic, blind, sigmoid). Onkoobrazovanie formed from the intestinal epithelium, gradually hitting the surrounding tissue. Cancer cells spread through the lymphatic vessels, forming metastatic foci.Adenocarcinoma of the large intestineis not always diagnosed at an early stage, since there are no specific for this pathology symptoms.
Often the disease is registered at the age of 50 years. Regular examination and early detection make it possible to stop the oncology in time, preventing its progression and metastasis.
Features of the disease
"Colon" adenocarcinoma, that is, localized in various parts of the large intestine neoplasm, is a cancer growing out of the intestinal epithelium under the influence of provoking factors.
The disease is often registered among oncopathology. Therapeutic tactics depend on the tumor type and morphological features:
- Highly moderately or poorly differentiated form.
- Undifferentiated, characterized by aggressiveness and poor life expectancy.
What is dangerous adenocarcinoma of the colon?
Complications of cancer disease are related both to the damage to surrounding organs and to distant structures:
- Ulceration of the tumor conglomerate is observed in case of insufficient nutrition due to compression of blood vessels or trauma in endoscopic examination;
- bleeding may be associated with disintegration of the neoplasm or a violation of the integrity of the vascular wall;
- the disintegration of oncogenesis, which leads to the development of severe cancer intoxication and worsening of general well-being;
- infection of the tumor during its decay;
- Perforation (puncture) of the intestinal wall, which provokes peritonitis;
- intestinal obstruction, manifested by the difficulty of escaping gases, constipation, pain syndrome and abdominal enlargement in the circumference;
- formation of fistulous passages between the intestine, prostate, bladder and reproductive organs;
- distant metastasis by lymphatic (60%) and blood (10%) vessels.
Separately, it should be said about the development of cachexia, because with cancer, body weight rapidly decreases, and anemia due to prolonged bleeding and intoxication.
The appearance of intestinal cancer can be due to many predisposing factors:
- old age;
- long constipation;
- poor nutrition;
- long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs;
- concomitant intestinal diseases (fistulas, colitis, polyps in the intestine);
- frequent nervous experiences;
- work in hazardous production (asbestos).
The initial symptomatology is not specific, so the person is worried about periodic pain, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and poor appetite. Sometimes you can notice in the stool of mucous or spotting, which eventually get purulent.
Exact symptoms of colon adenocarcinoma
With the progression of the disease, pain, nausea, constipation, and constipation of the tumor through the abdominal wall are noted. It is dense, mobile and has an uneven surface.
A person loses weight, he is disturbed by flatulence, there are discharges with a bloody and purulent component. Increasing in volume, education affects the bladder, which is manifested by dysuric disorders, and reproductive organs with the appearance of bloody discharge from the genital tract.
When intestinal contents enter the abdominal cavity, peritonitis develops with an increase in temperature, weakness, severe pain syndrome, a drop in pressure, and a pallor of the skin.
When an infection is attached, it causes an intoxication of the body with fever, deterioration of appetite, weakness and laboratory changes in the blood.
Necessary analyzes and examinations
The diagnosis is based on the analysis of complaints, conducting an examination, probing the abdomen and determining the instrumental examination. It consists of sigmoidoscopy, irrigoscopy with barium, colonoscopy and biopsy with cytological and histological analysis.
Also, ultrasound and tomography are performed to assess the prevalence of oncoprocess. Laboratory markers of the intestine and feces are examined for the presence of blood.
Treatment of colon adenocarcinoma
Conservative therapy includes the use of chemotherapy drugs, for example, "Leucovorin "Ftorafur" and "Irinotecan." They are used by special schemes to stop malignant progression and metastasis.
Irradiation is not common in intestinal cancer, but can be used in the pre- or postoperative period.
The main medical method is surgical intervention. It allows you to remove the affected areas of the intestine in conjunction with the lymph nodes. To prepare the patient for the operation, "Fortrans" is appointed, which clears the intestines of stool and does not require enema setting.
With the advanced stages it is recommended the formation of colostomy, which normalizes the work of the intestine.
Reduce the risk of the disease can be through regular check-ups, treatment of infectious pathology, normalization of nutritional ration (enrichment with dietary fiber due to plant foods) and control of intestinal functioning, preventing long-term constipation.
Oftenadenocarcinoma of the large intestinerecurs in the first 5 years after surgery. With complete removal of the tumor and the absence of metastases, the survival rate reaches 80%. The highly differentiated appearance of oncogenesis has the most favorable prognosis (5-year survival rate is 50%), moderately differentiated - poorly sensitive to chemotherapy, and a low-grade type is characterized by aggressiveness and poor prognosis for the patient..