Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel - the latest techniques
Israeli specialists for many years have accumulated extensive experience in the therapy and diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The patient's examination is completed in three or four days, after which the program of treatment procedures begins.
The list includes innovative and effective methods, such as chemotherapy, immune and targeted drugs, radiotherapy, stem cell transplantation. The wide variety of the types of therapies used makes it possible to give a good prognosis of treatment with confidence.
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* Only with the condition of obtaining data on the patient's illness, the representative of the clinic will be able to calculate the exact price for the treatment.
About the disease
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates from white blood cells of lymphocytes, which are the main active element of the immune system. Lymphocytes are divided into several species, in particular B- and T-lymphocytes. The first protect the body from foreign bacteria and viruses, producing proteins called antibodies. Antibodies attach to infectious proteins and thus "tag" them, give a signal to other components of the immune system responsible for the destruction of foreign cells. T-lymphocytes also possess such a function - they destroy cells marked with B-lymphocytes.
If a mutation occurs in one of the lymphocytes and it begins to divide uncontrollably, lymphoma begins. Pathological cells not only constantly divide, but because of their nature they can attack healthy cells organism, accumulate in the lymph nodes, cease to produce the antibodies necessary for the immune system and cause other anomalies. Clinical manifestations of the disease include enlargement of lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, a sense of chronic fatigue, and sometimes pain in the chest and bones can occur.
The etiology of NHL is still not clear, experts identify several major risk factors, including poor immune status system, infection with the Epstein-Barr virus or hepatitis C, excess weight and presence in the gastrointestinal tract of the bacterium Helicobacter. The typical age at which NHL is diagnosed is 65 to 75 years. At the same time, the five-year prognosis of survival, thanks to modern methods of therapy, which are used in Israeli clinics, is encouraging - 71% and higher.
Diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel
The primary task of diagnosis is the differentiation of indolent forms of lymphoma from aggressive ones. The former are characterized by slow growth and may require only observation, the latter bear a direct threat to health and life and require immediate treatment. Diagnosis is carried out using several modern techniques.
- Biopsy (excision with the removal of the affected lymph node or incisional with the removal of only a small part of it). Fine needle aspiration can also be used - the intake of the lymph node with a needle.
- Aspiration of the bone marrow.
- Lumbar puncture.
- Immunohistochemical tests and flow cytometry.
- Study of chromosomes (cytogenetic tests, fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR and other tests).
- Radiodiagnosis using the methods of radiography and tomography, ultrasound.
- Blood test.
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Methods of treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel
Israeli clinics use both traditional and innovative approaches to NHL therapy.
Chemotherapy is the main treatment for most types of NHL. Depending on the characteristics of the disease, it can be combined with other methods of therapy (for example, with radiotherapy or immune therapy).
Several types of chemotherapy are used, usually in a complex. Cytostatics from the group of alkylating agents, corticosteroids, platinum preparations, purine base analogs, antimetabolites, cytostatic antibiotics, etc. are used. In addition to the traditional intravenous administration, intrathecal can be used when the drugs are spinal fluid in order to prevent the spread of malignant cells in the head and spinal brain.
Since the drugs cause the destruction of malignant cells, patients develop a so-called tumor lysis syndrome - lymphoma cells, destroying, release toxins into the blood. To prevent this negative effect and its consequences (impaired kidney function, cardiovascular system), in Israeli clinics patients are required to give special drugs (inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, enzyme catalysts for the oxidation of uric acid, etc.) etc.).
As immunotherapeutic agents, monoclonal antibodies are used, proteins capable of pointwise attacking certain cells (in this case, lymphocytes). In general, antibodies specific for CD20 antigens, which are present on the surface of B lymphocytes, are used. Such drugs are administered intravenously and address the source of the disease - pathological white blood cells.
Antibodies with specificity for CD52 antigens (T-cell lymphoma) and CD30 (relapses of NHL), interferons and immunomodulators can also be used. One of the innovative immunotherapeutic methods is therapy using chimeric T-lymphocytes - first T-lymphocytes are taken from patient's blood, then modified in the laboratory and get new properties (become so-called chimera and acquire the ability to join proteins located on the surface of lymphoma cells), and then injected back into the blood and begin to fight pathological cells.
- Target therapy
Another promising direction is based on the use of targeted drugs that can affect the physiological processes necessary for the growth and division of malignant cells. Proteasome inhibitors disrupt the processes of destruction of proteins in pathological cells, inhibitors of histone deacetylase work at the genetic level, kinase inhibitors disrupt the signal system that regulates cell growth, etc. e.
In contrast to systemic chemotherapy drugs, targeted have fewer side effects, in some cases they can be used as monotherapy, but usually supplement chemotherapy.
Radiological methods can be used in cases when the disease is at an early stage (NHL responds very well to radiotherapy), and also if the lymphoma behaves aggressively and there is a risk of spreading the malignant process to internal organs.
Before the course of radiotherapy, all the necessary parameters are determined-the location of the focus, the angle at which the ionizing beam must be directed, and so on. Most often the course takes several weeks and is conducted with two-day breaks. The procedure itself is completely painless and lasts only a few minutes (although the preparation time for irradiation is much longer).
- Bone marrow transplantation
Therapy of this type is used in cases when other types of treatment seem unpromising. Strictly speaking, transplantation is not a method of therapy, but is used to compensate for the main side effect high-dose chemotherapy - almost complete suppression of the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow, extremely sensitive to action chemotherapy drugs. High-dose chemotherapy allows the most complete eradication of malignant leukocytes, but after it needs to restore the hematopoietic function of the bone marrow. For this, the patient or donor material can be used.
Surgical techniques can be used in cases where it is required to carry out removal of the affected lymph node or pathological process has spread to the spleen and other internal organs.
Due to such a wide variety of modern techniques, more and more patients prefer to undergo treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel - reviews about the therapy are mostly positive. Patients remain satisfied with the quality of medical services and the effectiveness of the methods used.
Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel - prices
The cost of treating non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel is affordable to almost any patient. In doing so, comparing how much treatment costs for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Israel and, for example, in countries Western Europe, you can see that therapy in Israeli clinics is cheaper at least for 30-45%.
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