Head cancer -this is a complex concept that unites the formation of foci of malignant growth of pathological tissues in different areas of the head. The most common places of oncology progression are:
- Oral cavity (tongue, hard and soft palate, mucous membrane of alveolar processes).
- The surface of the scalp.
The number of recorded cases of cancer of the head indicates an increase in the incidence of morbidity in older people. This oncology mainly affects the male.
Causes and risk factors
The vast majority of patients with cancer head damage abuse alcohol and tobacco. Such bad habits increase about 40 times the risk of squamous cell cancer.
Skin cancercan be caused by the following reasons:
- Long stay under the influence of direct sunlight, which can provoke the formation of melanoma of the skin.
- Frequent radiographic examination of the head. Under the influence of radiation radiation, a gene mutation of cells occurs, which can serve as a trigger mechanism for the formation of a malignant tumor.
- Chronic infection of the body with infection. Some strains of viruses significantly reduce immunity, which in turn increases the body's susceptibility to oncology.
The occurrence of tumors of the mouth affects:
- Chronic mucosal infections.
- Inadequate oral hygiene.
- Presence of peredark states.
- Systematic trauma of the mucous layer of the oral cavity with substandard fillings or prostheses.
Symptoms of head cancer
The manifestations of cancerous growth directly depend on the localization of the pathological process. Skin and mucous forms of oncology, as a rule, are diagnosed at early stages of development, since the patient at this stage determines bleeding ulcers. The tumor growth zone is often changed in color and covered with scales.
Head cancer,which is located in the deep layers of the head is diagnosed, mainly in the late stages due to the latent and asymptomatic course of the disease in the initial stages of the tumor.
In the development of cancer, the patient pays attention to the formation of protrusion and consolidation of soft and hard tissues of the head. Together with visual manifestations of the disease, patients develop a pain syndrome, in which the initial phase of pain can be controlled with the help of traditional analeptics. Progression of the tumor occurs with pain sensations of high intensity, which are treated only by the systematic administration of narcotic painkillers.
Diagnosis of head cancer
Diagnosis of head cancer is performed by an oncologist who first conducts a visual examination of the patient and assesses the specificity of the patient's complaints. A comprehensive clinical picture of the disease can be established with the help of additional diagnostic methods:
- X-ray research, which is a fairly informative means of detecting oncology of the brain, oral cavity, paranasal jaws.
- Magnetic resonance imaging. Layer-by-layer scanning of the head tissues allows diagnosing tumors at an early stage, their boundaries and the nature of growth.
- CT scan. This method of diagnosis doctors are carried out to recognize the spread of cancer to regional lymph nodes and the degree of differentiation of malignant tissue.
The final determination of the growth pattern and the tissue belonging of the mutated cells is established by the results of a laboratory analysis of the biological material. The fence of the affected tissue is taken during a biopsy, which involves the subsequent histological examination of the pathological tissue. A special microscopic examination determines the type of tumor, the stage of development of oncology and the spread of transformed tissues.
Modern methods of treatment of head cancer
When malignant neoplasm is localized in the head, combined therapies have proven their effectiveness in treating the disease. It is advisable to start therapy of a head tumor with radiation therapy, which consists in the action of highly active X-rays on mutated tissues. After the application of radioactive irradiation, doctors ascertain the reduction in the size of the malignant tumor, which is a positive preparation of the patient for the surgical intervention.
Surgery is performed to maximize excision of affected cells and regional lymph nodes. Excision of the tumor according to current recommendations is made by a gentle method.
IMPORTANT TO KNOW: Signs of a head tumor
In some clinical cases, doctors resort to the use of chemotherapy, which is regular intake of cytotoxic drugs to prevent the secondary spread of cancer tissues.
A favorable outcome of the treatment of head cancer is predicted in cases of early detection and full treatment of malignant neoplasm. The possibility of developing the disease according to statistics does not exceed the indicator of 5%.
An exception is the melanoma of the scalp, which is characterized by extremely aggressive growth and early formation of metastases. So, postoperative survival after surgical treatment of skin lesion of the head becomes 35%..