Ablastic in oncology
The surgical tactic used in oncology is an ablastic. It is aimed at preventing the recurrence (reappearance) of malignant cells, both in the excision site and among surrounding tissues.Ablasticaimplies the removal of the main cancerous tumor in conjunction with closely located lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels.
The oncological principle includes the method of futility, which implies excision of the neoplasm within the anatomical site, as well as the zonality method, covering the area where the tumor spreads in most cases with a certain localization.
Radical operative treatment is carried out in various ways, which differ in the volume of the structures being removed (normal, advanced). A combined, combined approach is also used in operations.
To achieve a good result, to prevent the onset of cancer again, it is necessary to use ablastics in combination with antiblastic. The latter principle applies:
- application of antiseptic solutions along the edges of the operating wound;
- irradiation of the operating wound;
- use of drugs designed to fight cancer cells.
Observing ablastic, anti-plastic, surgeons can minimize the risk of recurrence, spread transformed cells on the blood, lymphatic vessels with the formation of close and distant foci of screening.
Features of ablastics
Surgical intervention is not always used as the only treatment approach for oncogenes. This is due to the fact that the location of the tumor conglomerate does not always allow us to apply the radical method, removing all the altered cells. In this case, it is necessary to use additional therapeutic techniques, such as irradiation and chemotherapy. They allow to destroy the remaining cancerous areas and prevent their spread through the body.
However, there are oncological diseases, in which the tumor is not so aggressive, its slow growth is observed. In this case, when it is detected at an early stage, it is possible to use an operational approach without concomitant radiation or chemotherapy.
After conducting a complete examination of the patient, confirming the absence of metastases, an operation is performed with observance of ablastics. Before surgical treatment, the doctor must have accurate information about the localization of the primary malignant focus, its boundaries, prevalence.
In addition, it is necessary to know what form of growth in the neoplasm (exo endophytic, mixed), as well as its histological structure, the degree of differentiation. Based on the results of instrumental, laboratory examination, clinical symptoms, the oncologist establishes the stage of oncoprocess.
Principle of ablasticsObserved with a radical operation. The surgeon should be ready for two stages during the surgical procedure: removal of the primary cancerous lesion within uninfected areas and subsequent reconstruction of the wound.
A variety of oncological operations
The operational volume is determined taking into account:
- oncoprocess stage;
- prevalence of the tumor;
- its dimensions;
- presence of metastases;
- the age of the patient;
- the severity of the concomitant pathology.
In malignant neoplasms, the operation is performed with a therapeutic or diagnostic purpose (to confirm the diagnosis, established on the basis of diagnostic results). Also, tissues are excised for carrying out histological analysis in order to verify the oncoprocess.
Therapeutic surgical interventions vary in scope and objectives:
- Radical, in which the principles of ablastic relate to the main treatment approaches.
- Palliative, which implies the partial removal of the malignant conglomerate due to the inoperability of the tumor. In this case, the operation is aimed at suppressing the growth of cancer tissues and prolonging the life of the patient. About convalescence speech does not go.
- Symptomatictype is used to reduce the severity of clinical symptoms, for example, reduce the intensity of pain syndrome, eliminate intestinal obstruction.
In carrying out radical surgical intervention, the probability of a favorable outcome, an increase in the survival rate, and the quality of life of the patient increases. In this case, the principles of ablastics are considered an integral approach.
Toablasticswas observed, histological analysis not only examines the pathological tissues of oncogenesis, but also the edges of the operating wound..