Surgery to remove the tumor
The main method of treating cancer is the surgical method of removing the tumor and cancerous tissues affected by cancer cells. The scope of surgical intervention largely depends on the location of the tumor, the stage of development and prevalence of malignant neoplasm.
Surgery to remove the tumorare carried out in accordance with the fundamental principles of cancer surgery, which include such provisions:
Ablastica, which includes a set of measures aimed at the complete removal of all cancer cells, without damaging neighboring healthy tissues. As a result, such an operation to remove the tumor completely excludes the possibility of recurrence of the disease.
AntiblasticsIs a combination of special surgical manipulations to prevent the spread of cancer cells through the lymphatic and blood vessels. Also in this concept is postoperative radiotherapy of tumors, which destroys malignant cancer cells.
Tumor removal operations: types in oncology practice
- Resection includes incomplete removal of the affected organ. Such surgery to remove the tumor can foresee a disruption in the continuity of the body's tissue structure.
- Amputation or ectomy is the excision of a cancerous tumor along with the part of the body where the primary focus of malignant growth has arisen.
The main types of anticancer operations
The essence of thissurgery to remove a tumoris the complete removal of both the primary tumor and the metastatic focus of oncology. Radical technique includes three variants of surgical measures:
- Standard operation. WhereinCancerThey are excised together with a part of nearby healthy tissues and regional lymph nodes of the first level.
- The advanced technique of anticancer therapy is to remove cancerous tissues and lymph nodes 3-4 levels, which in turn helps to neutralize the metastatic foci of the mutation.
- Combined method of operating, which involves excision of the affected and nearby organ.
In some clinical cases, due to the high prevalence of the tumor or the formation of multiple metastases, it becomes impossible to completely remove the tumor. For such patients, specific therapy aimed at eliminating associated pathological conditions in the form of oncological bleeding, obstruction of the digestive canal is carried out.
Conducted for timely impact on a particular symptom, which can provoke a fatal outcome for the patient.
Modern surgery to remove the tumor
Recently, the so-called methods of tissue destruction have been widely used in oncological practice, which are divided into such anti-cancer measures:
- Electrocoagulation. Short-term exposure to electrical impulses causes destruction in the cell walls of a malignant neoplasm.
- Cryodestruction. With this type of therapy, superficial cancer is exposed to the limited effect of ultralow temperatures, which as a result provokes the death and rejection of mutated tissues.
- Laser surgery. The use of laser beams is the most progressive method of treating cancer.
What is the "tumor operability"?
Oncology of the internal organs requires the resolution of the question of the possibility of a complete removal of the malignant neoplasm.
The operability of the tumor is such a localization of cancer, which implies free access to the focus of pathology. This indicator is determined in the course of comprehensive diagnosis. The possibility of performing an oncologic operation is also affected by the overall somatic state of the patient. In this case, severe diseases of the cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory systems are considered a contraindication to surgical intervention.
Resultivity of cancer affects the degree of possible removal of malignant tissues. This concept is determined directly during the surgical procedure. In some clinical situations during surgical treatment, it turns out that it is impossible to completely remove the cancer tumor. In this case we are talking about a diagnostic operation.
Cytoreductive surgery to remove tumors
When all malignant tissue can not be removed, oncology surgeons resort to partial excision of a cancerous tumor. This operation leads to a decrease in the volume of neoplasm, increases the sensitivity of pathological tissues to cytostatic therapy.
At the terminal stages of the cancer process, which is accompanied by the spread of multiple metastases, an effective method of treatment is resection of the affected lymph nodes. Timely excision of cancer lymph nodes allows to continue the life expectancy of the patient and push death for some time from cancer.
Urgent surgery to remove the tumor
Cancers such as stomach cancer and lung cancer are often asymptomatic. There are cases when such patients enter a surgical hospital with signs of acute intestinal obstruction, perforation, bleeding or sepsis. These pathological conditions require immediate palliative intervention. And only after elimination of a vital symptom the doctor can start to prepare a course of the subsequent anti-cancer therapy..