Myeloleukemia is a malignant lesion of the hematopoietic system, as a result of which the immature cells are intensively produced, inhibiting the germs of mature blood elements. The disease mainly develops at the age of 30 - 50 years.
Causes of the disease
Most often, the cause of the disease is a genetic mutation, which disrupts the normal process of hematopoiesis with the appearance of young forms. Despite modern medical techniques, a complete cure of the disease is almost impossible, however, stopping the process at an early stage, a person can live for a long time without deteriorating the quality of life.
Until now, the main causes that provoke a hemopoiesis failure have not been identified. There are only assumptions that the anomalies in the composition of the chromosome set play an important role in the pathological process.
Predisposing factors include:
- action of carcinogens of chemical origin, for example, when taking medications of a group of cytostatics or due to the action of benzene;
- Radiation irradiation with other oncology localization;
- some scientists point to the relationship between viral agents and this disease.
Regardless of the provoking factor, the malignant process goes one way, causing acute or chronic myelogenous leukemia.
How is myelogenous leukemia manifested?
Defeating the hematopoietic germs, the progression of the disease proceeds in the expanded and terminal stages. At the initial stage, there may be no clinical manifestations. Only leukocytosis and the appearance of young forms are found in the laboratory. In addition, the Philadelphia chromosome and the imbalance between erythrocytes and white blood cells (leukocytes) in the bone marrow are revealed.
This stage can last about 4 years. Having diagnosed the pathology at the initial stage and having begun the necessary treatment, a person for a long time does not feel the symptoms of the disease.
As for the terminal stage, the patient complains of hyperthermia (increased temperature), intense weight loss, severe weakness and pain in the bones. With palpation, an increase in the size of the spleen and liver is found.
When diagnosing an increased number of blasts, the oppression of hematopoietic growths is registered, and therefore the level of leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes decreases.
Myeloid leukemia has a stage:
The chronic phase- last up to 3 years, during which there may be no symptoms, but gradually increases the spleen, leukocyte and platelet level. At the end of 3 years, there is weakness, sweating and discomfort in the left hypochondrium.
Acceleration stageclinically practically nothing is different, but laboratory increase in basophils is detected, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, promyelocytes and blast cells are recorded. There may be itching, diarrhea and a feeling of heat. If at this stage after the chemotherapy course the number of basophils does not decrease, this indicates an unfavorable prognosis and progression of the terminal phase.
Terminal- characterized by severe weakness, joint, bone pain, fever up to 39 degrees, chills, weight loss, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Of the complications, it is worth noting the spleen infarction, manifested by acute pain in the left hypochondrium with spreading to the back and hyperthermia up to 38 degrees.
Symptoms at the last stage are caused by changes in the blood. Reduction of leukocytes is accompanied by an inferior functioning of the immune system, chronic pathology worsens, infectious diseases progress and lymph nodes become inflamed.
Thrombocytopenia is manifested by the disruption of the coagulation system and the development of hemorrhagic syndrome. On the skin and mucous membranes, a rash may appear, bleeding time may increase with a wound or with menstruation. With anemia, dizziness, weakness, pale skin and loss of consciousness are possible, since organs, including the brain, do not receive enough nutrients and oxygen.
Acute myelogenous leukemia at the beginning of development is manifested by the symptomatic complex of influenza in the form of aches in the joints, subfebrile condition, decrease in appetite, weakness and dyspnea. This form is rapidly progressing and, despite the treatment used, often leads to a lethal outcome (15-70%).
Treatment of myeloid leukemia
Therapeutic tactics depend on the stage of malignant pathology. Often used medicamental and chemotherapy. Widely prescribed restorative therapy, hormonal, immunostimulating, the nutritional diet is changed and dispensary supervision is conducted.
Chemotherapeutic drugs ("Hydroxyurea") are administered exclusively in a hospital under the supervision of medical personnel. However, one should remember about their side effects in the form of suppression of immunity, the appearance of diarrhea and other dyspeptic disorders. Of cytostatics, "Myelosan" is prescribed.
Radiation therapy is used when the spleen is enlarged. At the terminal stage can be used "Vincristine "Cytosar "Rubomycin" and other chemotherapy drugs.
Cure is possible with stem cell transplantation, but this is not always possible.
Having considered the variants of the course of the disease and medical methods, it is worth noting that the timely diagnosis of malignant process depends on regular examinations. Even in the absence of clinical symptoms based on the results of laboratory diagnosis, it is possible to suspect at an early stage a malignant process.
Having diagnosedmyeloid leukemiain a chronic stage and having begun treatment, the patient has high chances for a long life and a normal its quality, which can not be said about the terminal stage and acceleration, when the risk of death is very is high..