A variety of vascular malformation, that is, vascular neoplasms, iscavernoma. It can cause neurological disorders or be diagnosed accidentally during examination for another disease.
Structurally it is a vascular cavity of various diameters filled with blood. The size can vary from 3-5 millimeters to several centimeters.
This vascular formation has a rounded, clearly defined shape, a bluish color, a tuberous surface and a different structure (connective tissue with thrombi or thin brittle walls).
Causes of appearance
The cause of this formation in most cases is congenital vascular pathology, the development of which is the violation of endothelium formation.
Also, some scientists suggest that a cavernoma can be a consequence of radiation therapy, infection of the body and the immune-inflammatory process.
The clinical symptom complex depends on the localization of vascular neoplasm. One of the first manifestations may be an epileptic attack with the presence of neurological disorders.
Cavernoma of the brainoften manifested:
- cephalgia (headache), which at the initial stage of development is not expressed and periodic, however In the future, its intensity is significantly increased, and it is not amenable to drug therapy;
- seizures resembling epileptic type;
- noise in the ears or ringing in the head;
- uncertain gait, dizziness, impaired coordination and motor activity;
- dyspeptic disorders in the form of nausea, vomiting;
- the appearance of weakness in the limbs, numbness and paralysis;
- visual, speech and auditory dysfunction, impaired memory, attention and confusion of thoughts.
How to recognize?
Manifestations of ailment depend on the localization of the cavernoma. In 80% of cases, vascular neoplasm is detected in the upper cerebral divisions (frontal, temporal, parietal region, visual hillock and basal ganglia). In the cerebellum, education is diagnosed in 8% of cases, the rest,% fall on the spinal cord.
So, the symptoms of a cavernoma are different:
- frontal lobe- memory impairment, inability to perform fine precise movements and change in handwriting. In addition, periods of apathy and depression or, conversely, euphoria and inadequacy are possible. Also, the speech function suffers (depletion of the lexicon or excessively talkative).
- temporal lobe- auditory, speech dysfunction. A person does not recognize previously familiar voices.
- parietal region- intellectual disorders.
- cerebellum- instability of gait, speech dysfunction and strangeness in movements (slopes, head turns, bizarre postures).
Analyzes and examinations included in the diagnosis
Diagnosis of the disease begins with a survey of complaints and an objective examination by a doctor. Then, a blood test is performed to detect anemia and inflammation, and cerebrospinal fluid to prevent hemorrhage.
From instrumental techniques are used:
- Angiography, which allows using a contrast medium to visualize the diameter, patency and localization of altered vessels.
- Computer tomography is necessary to obtain layered photographs for the analysis of the pathological focus.
- Magnetic resonance imaging also visualizes blood vessels and brain tissue, which makes it possible to get a complete picture of the disease.
- To study the biological potentials of the brain, electroencephalography is effective.
Removing the cavernoma
Treatment consists in surgical intervention. Drug therapy is ineffective in this case.
The operation can be complicated by two points. This is the refusal of the patient, due to the fact thatcavernomaat this stage of development does not give him any discomfort, although the risk of hemorrhage is very high.
The second point is the inaccessibility of the neoplasm, for example, in the brain stem.
Indications for surgical intervention are:
- surface cavernomas, manifested seizures;
- vascular neoplasms, which at least once led to hemorrhage;
- Large cavernomas in hazardous areas.
Surgical intervention can be performed by the classical method of removal of education. Thus, pressure on surrounding brain tissues is reduced, as a result of which the symptoms of the disease do not develop (seizures or focal neurological symptoms).
Contraindications include multiple neoplasms, old age and the presence of concomitant pathology in the stage of decompensation.
In addition, the removal can be performed radiosurgically using a gamma knife. The essence of the technique lies in the impact of the beam directly on the neoplasm.
If we consider the disease before the rupture of the vessel and the appearance of a hemorrhage in the brain, the overall prognosis is favorable.
After the operation, the patient soon returns to a full life. Thanks to modern research methods,cavernomacan be timely detected and removed, which will prevent the development of hemorrhage and possible fatal outcome..