Myeloma - what is this? How to treat?
Malignant damage to plasma cells or myeloma is an oncological disease of the circulatory system a system in which no traditional tumor is detected, and cancer cells are found throughout the bone structure the brain. The development of this pathology is accompanied by increased brittleness of bones. Many patients complain of frequent pathological fractures.
What is myeloma?
This disease to date is an incurable lesion of the cells of the immune system. Modern methods of anticancer therapy are only able to prolong the life of a cancer patient. This pathology is most susceptible to older people and among the patients dominated by men.
The etiology of the anomaly is unknown. During numerous scientific researches it is established that this oncology originates from one cell, which was transformed into cancer. Later, active division and accumulation of plasmocytes with defective DNA occurs. Thus, in the bone marrow there is a gradual degeneration of the normal structure and the release into the circulatory system of a large number of specific proteins.
What is the danger?
The main danger of the disease is the gradual replacement of normal cells of the circulatory system by atypical ones. Also, patients with cancer suffer from a violation of the kidneys, liver and spleen. At terminal stages, multiple foci of bone resorption destroy the bone marrow, which loses the ability to synthesize leukocytes, erythrocytes and lymphocytes.
Types of defeat
Myeloma of the blood is classified into the following variants:
- Solitary pathology- in this case, the mutation site is located within a single tubular bone.
- Multiple myeloma of bones- Oncological transformation of bone marrow occurs simultaneously in several parts of the body. It can be a spine, a scapula, pelvic and tubular bones. Also in such patients, malignant lesions of regional lymph nodes and spleen are noted.
Symptoms and signs
Myeloma is manifested by two main groups of symptoms:
- Manifestations of tumor growth in the bone marrow:
- intense attacks of pain in the area of bone anomaly;
- osteoporosis and, accordingly, increased fragility of bones;
- frequent pathological fractures of bones;
- deformation of the spine and, as a result, the transmission of internal organs;
- an increased concentration of calcium ions in blood samples, indicating an active process of resorption of bone structures;
- anemia - a decrease in the number of all cellular forms of blood;
- development of immunodeficiency state.
- Signs of the formation of paraprotein and its effect on internal organs:
- increase in blood viscosity;
- chronic renal failure;
- disorders of the cardiac and nervous system;
- hypertrophy of the liver and spleen.
How is the diagnosis carried out?
The final diagnosis is made on the basis of the following diagnostic measures:
- External examination of the oncological and palpation of the affected area of the body.
- Radiography, which allows you to study the morphological structure of bone tissue.
- Biochemical and advanced blood tests.
- Laboratory examination of urine samples, which is necessary to determine the efficiency of the kidneys.
- Bone marrow biopsy using the puncture method.
Modern treatment of myeloma
With the purpose of transferring pathology to the inactive phase, experts recommend taking a course of chemotherapy. The patient can undergo the introduction of one type of cytostatic drug (monochemotherapy) or several cytostatics (polychemotherapy).
The ineffectiveness of such treatment, as a rule, is the reason for radiotherapy, which in some cases is also able to translate pathology into a stage of remission.
Treatment of patients with palliative care
Methods for symptomatic treatment of severely ill patients include:
- Surgical intervention in case of severe damage to the internal organ by a deformed bone.
- Correction of the level of calcium ions in the circulating blood.
- Systematic administration of analgesics in oncology. At terminal stages, such patients require the use of narcotic drugs for pain relief.
- Maintaining the function of the kidneys, which gradually lose the ability to filter blood.
- Reception of drugs for the restoration of clotting of platelets.
Myeloma prognosis is negative, there is no full recovery of cancer patients with this pathology. Very rarely there are cases when patients live 10 years after the establishment of the final diagnosis. This trend is observed, exclusively, in a solitary form. A positive result of anti-cancer therapy in this disease is the transition of pathology to remission. The only way to extend the life expectancy of a seriously ill patient is polychemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Diagnosis of the disease at the terminal stage causes a fatal outcome for 3-9 months.
According to statistics, people with myeloma without appropriate treatment live an average of 1-2 years. Complex therapy, which includes the use of cytotoxic drugs, hormonal drugs and antibiotics, can prolong the life of the cancer patient for 2-4 years.
Medical statistics state the average survival rate of patients within 4-5 years. Eventually,myeloma- this is a serious oncological lesion of the circulatory system, which, unfortunately, in 99% ends in a fatal outcome. All medical measures can only prolong the life of a person..