Blood Tumor-It is a group of oncological diseases of the hematopoietic system. If cancer cells form in the bone marrow, the disease is called leukemia. When placing pathological elements outside the area of blood formation, oncologists indicate the presence of hematosarcoma.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood that is characterized by a malignant degeneration of a certain type of blood cell. The development of the disease is accompanied by uncontrolled division of mutated cells with a gradual replacement of healthy tissue.
Leukemia is classified according to the primary lesions. For example, a change in the structure of lymphocytes is a lymphocytic leukemia.
All blood tumors have a chronic or acute course. Acute leukemias are formed in undifferentiated cells of the circulatory system. The chronic process takes place in the lymphatic system, spleen and liver.
Leukemia is considered to be the most common malignant oncology.Blood Tumorpreferably affects children and the elderly.
Etiology of the disease
A reliable reason for the formation of cancerous hemopoietic cells has not been established to date. Scientists know that the formation of even a single mutated cell is sufficient to start the cancer process. The formed cancer cell begins to intensively divide and the malignant neoplasm gradually forms.
Risk factors for the occurrence of chromosomal mutations:
- Exposure to radiation:
According to statistics in Japan after the nuclear explosion and in Ukraine after the Chernobyl disaster at least 50 times increased the number of patients with blood cancer.
- Genetic predisposition:
The presence of chronic leukemia in direct relatives 4 times increases the risk of oncology of blood. Theoretically, the disease does not genetically spread, but there is a family predisposition to tissue mutations.
- Viral infection:
Some strains of viruses are known to penetrate into the DNA of the cell, provoking the formation of mutations and malignant blood diseases.
Symptoms of a blood tumor
Self-diagnosisblood tumorsIt is impossible, but one should pay attention to the change in the general condition of the patient.
Acute leukemia can manifest itself with the following symptoms:
- Prolonged and persistent elevation of body temperature.
- Attacks of headache and dizziness.
- Pain in the lower extremities.
- The formation of acute bleeding.
Chronic leukemia characterizes:
- Increase in the size of the spleen or liver.
- Deterioration of appetite and, as a result, loss of body weight.
- Rapid fatigue, chronic fatigue.
Diagnosis of blood cancer is carried out by an oncologist on the basis of a detailed analysis and biochemical blood test. To establish a definitive diagnosis, oncologists recommend a sternal puncture and trepanobiopsy. These additional techniques allow us to study the histological structure of the pathological neoplasm.
Therapy of acute leukemia must begin immediately after diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is carried out in the hematological center, which ensures comfortable accommodation of patients and sterile conditions of stay.
Therapeutic measures should include a course of chemotherapy for the clearance of blast cells. The use of cytostatic agents is complemented by such procedures as:
- transfusion of blood elements (erythrocytes and platelets);
- prevention of viral and bacterial infections;
- decrease in organism intoxication.
Modern methods of conducting medical treatment of a blood tumor include two stages of therapy:
I.Induction therapy - aimed at destroying the maximum number of mutated cells to achieve the transition of the acute phase of the disease into the stage of remission.
II.Chemotherapy - in the compensation stage is conducted with the purpose of preventing exacerbation or development of relapse of leukemia.
Therapeutic activities in this period include:
- The method of consolidation is essentially the continuation of induction therapy with the use of high concentrations of cytostatic agents.
- The method of intensification consists in using more voluminous chemotherapy than at the first stage of treatment.
- The method of maintenance therapy is the effect on the circulatory system by moderate doses of chemotherapeutic agents.
In addition to traditional methods of therapy for oncology in modern clinics apply:
- Individually selected course of chemotherapy with transplantation of stem tissues.
- Transplantation of donor lymphocytes.
- Non-myeloablative transplantology.
- Introduction of new pharmacological preparations.
Carrying out of chemotherapeutic actions is connected with development of complications after each course of reception of preparations as active substances of cytostatics disastrously influence the whole organism.
After a conservative course of therapy, patients may experience increased susceptibility to viral infection, headaches, nausea, vomiting and spontaneous bleeding.
Early diagnosis and full treatment provides a relatively favorable outcome of therapy, which is confirmed by a long period of remission. An aggressive blood tumor with a permanent deterioration in the indices causes a negative prognosis of the disease..