Leukemia - Prognosis and Survival
Leukemia is an aggressive malignant diseasehematopoietic system, characterized by the advantage of the processes of cell division, growth and multiplication bone marrow, and in some cases, the appearance of pathological foci of hematopoiesis in others bodies. In leukemia, bone marrow cancer cells enter the bloodstream in large amounts, replacing the mature forms of leukocytes.
There are several types of leukemia. Most of them arise in white blood cells, which are part of the body's immune system. The prognosis and survival rate in most cases depends on the precise definition of the disease, early diagnosis and timely, effective treatment.
The main types of leukemia
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Acute myeloid leukemia.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
- Chronic myeloid leukemia.
The word "acute" means that the disease develops and progresses fairly quickly.
The term "chronic" indicates a prolonged course of the disease without any therapy.
The designations "lymphoblastic" and "lymphocytic" indicate abnormal cells that originated from lymphoid stem tissues. A "myeloid" indicates the development of mutated tissues from the myeloid stem cell.
Survival in leukemia
Survival in cancer indicates the percentage of people who live for a certain time. On average, doctors use a 5-year and 10-year prognosis, but this does not mean that the patient will not live longer than these figures.
In addition, for each person the prognosis is purely individual indices, which can vary depending on the course of the disease and the body's response to therapy. At any time, the data may vary, which is affected by the "behavior" of the tumor and its propensity to progress.
Survival includes people at different stages of the disease:
- people who have reached complete remission, and the disease does not arise again;
- people who had a preliminary relapse of the tumor, but at this stage are in a state of remission;
- people who have active leukemia.
Lymphoblastic acute leukemia: disease prognosis
The results of treatment depend on several factors:
- Type of leukemia and stage at the time of diagnosis.
- Level of response to chemotherapy treatment.
Of all adults, up to 4 out of 10 people (40%) will live for at least 5 years. Some of these patients will be cured definitively, in other cases there is a risk of return of the disease. This is called "secondary leukemia." Secondary leukemia develops after chemotherapy from the treatment of a previous tumor, when bone marrow cells are damaged. However, even after relapse there remains a certain percentage of cases when a second remission occurs.
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Survival rates for people with acute myeloid leukemia
In general, 5-year survival is about 25% and varies in men to 22%, and in women - up to 26%.
Oncology indicates that there are certain conditions that affect the positive prognosis of treatment:
- leukemia cells are between 8 and 21 or between 15 and 17 chromosomes;
- leukemic cells have an inversion of 16 chromosomes;
- cells are not characterized by changes in certain genes;
- age younger than 60 years;
The forecast may be worse under the following conditions:
- part 5 or 7 chromosomes are absent in leukemia cells;
- leukemia cells have complex changes affecting many chromosomes;
- there are cell changes at the genetic level;
- more advanced age (from 60 years);
- leukocytes in the blood more than 100 000 at the time of diagnosis;
- leukemia does not respond to initial treatment;
- there is an active infection of blood.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a prognosis for cancer patients
Malignant disease of blood and bone marrow, in which too many white blood cells are produced, does not always give comforting prognostic data.
The chances of recovery depend on:
- the level of change in the structure of DNA and its type;
- prevalence of malignant cells in the bone marrow;
- stage of the disease;
- primary treatment or recurrence;
Chronic myeloid leukemia: prognosis
The disease occurs in pluripotent hematopoietic cells, affecting the formation of leukemia tissues at all levels of the molecular composition of the blood.
Prognosis for leukemiaThis species has changed significantly in recent years due to new therapies, in particular bone marrow transplantation and stem cells. So, the 5-year survival rate is 40-80%, and the 10-year survival rate is 30-60%.
Survival with hydroxyurea therapy is 4-5 years. When using interferon, alone or in combination with cytarabine, the numbers increase almost twofold. Imatinib administration also positively affects the prognosis of patients (85% compared to 37% only with the use of interferon itself).
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Total survival statistics for leukemia
One five- and ten-year survival statistics becomes:
- 71% of men with combined treatments live for at least one year. This figure is reduced to 54% of survivors within five years. For womenleukemiais characterized by other prognostic data. The rates are slightly lower: 66% of women precisely live during the year and 49% of patients must survive for five years.
- With leukemia, the predicted percentage of survival is gradually decreasing and after 10 years results in data: 48% of men and 44% of women will have a positive effect of treatment.
Forecasting survival with age is:
- The positive result is higher among young men and women up to 30-49 years and decreases with age.
- The five-year survival rate in men ranges from 67% in the 15-39-year-old age to 23% in 80-99% -year-old. In women, cancer, given the prognostic conditions, has the same indications.
- 10-year net survival has recently improved by 7% compared to the 1990's. In general, 4 people out of 10 for 2014 completely recovered from the disease.