Metastases in the lymph nodes: symptoms, treatment, prognosis
The function of the lymphatic system is to identify and neutralize the viral and bacterial infection after it has penetrated the body. Its main components are lymph nodes and lymphoid vessels. Anti-infectious protection is provided by the circulation of lymph on a branched lymphatic net, which unites all organs and systems.
One of the characteristics of a malignant tumor is its infiltrative growth, which is characterized by a high penetrating ability and loose structure, which facilitates the detachment of a certain number of cancer cells from the primary focus defeat. These mutated elements subsequently enter the lymphatic and blood vessels. As a rule, the lymphoid path of oncology is considered to be the primary pathway. From this it follows that frequent manifestations of malignant neoplasms aremetastasesin the lymph nodes.
Metastases in the lymph nodes - factors of development and prevalence
- Size and aggressiveness of the primary cancerous tumor. Some malignant neoplasms such as melanoma, lung sarcoma, breast cancer are able at early stages of their development to form metastases to regional lymph nodes. Also, especially the clinical course of the disease, the absence of early symptomatology of the disease exacerbates.
- The degree of histological differentiation of the tumor. The low level of cell maturity of pathological tissues provokes copious excretion of cancerous elements into the lymphatic and circulatory bed.
- Localization of malignant neoplasm. Cancer, in the first place, spreads to regional lymph nodes, which are located in close proximity to the primary oncological focus.
- Form of pathological growth of the tumor. Cancers with an infiltrative nature of growth are particularly aggressive in terms of the formation of metastases.
- Age parameters. At a young age, the body's immune system is in a more active state than in older people. With this, the presence of more metastases in patients after 50 years is associated.
Metastases in the lymph nodes - symptoms
The course of the disease consists of local and general manifestations of pathology. At the local level, lesions of nodes can be determined by their puffiness, which is determined during finger feeling of the lymph node. In the normal state of the body, the lymph nodes are painless and non-palpable.
The general symptomatology of metastatic lesions is manifested in the form of cancer intoxication of the body, which provides:
- Persistent subfebrile body temperature, unrelated to inflammatory diseases of internal organs.
- Attacks of headache and muscle pain.
- General malaise and rapid fatigue.
Metastasis of cancer in the lymph node - treatment
Therapy of metastatic lesion of the lymphatic system corresponds to the general principles of cancer treatment and consists in the radical removal of all pathological nodes. Also, adjacent lymphoid structures should be excised to prevent possible complications.
After the surgical intervention, patients are recommended to undergo a course of radiological treatment and cytotoxic drugs.
Radiation therapy of tumors is a method of influencing the neoplasm with highly active X-ray radiation, which causes the death of cancer cells in the zone of ionizing radiation. Radiological treatment is performed in the conditions of an oncological hospital with the help of a stationary apparatus that generates gamma rays.
Chemotherapy is a method of destroying pathological cells with the help of oral or injection administration of pharmaceutical preparations. Dosage and duration of the course of therapy are selected individually for each patient. A characteristic feature of this technique is the systemic effect on the whole organism, which is especially is relevant in the late stages of the disease, when cancer cells are detected in multiple lymph nodes.
Metastases in the lymph nodes - prognosis
After the full course of combined therapy, the patient is recommended to undergo annual preventive examinations at the oncologist's doctor in order to detect early possible relapses of the tumor. For the first three years the patient needs to perform an examination once every six months.
Prognosis for the diagnosis of "metastases in the lymph nodes"Is considered favorable in the case of early detection of pathology, which proceeds according to the primary type. The consequences of secondary tumors of the lymphoid system depend on the type and stage of the primary focus of the mutation. Later, the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm causes an extremely unfavorable prognosis of the disease. In 4 stages of oncology, specific therapy is mainly aimed at reducing local symptoms of the tumor and is palliative..