Malignant birthmarks: photo and description
Malignant neoplasmsare melanoma - a cancerous disease that develops from the melanocytes of the basal layer of the epidermis (pigmented areas of the skin). It can occur anywhere in the body, but is especially often formed in open areas that are exposed to regular ultraviolet radiation.
Melanoma is the most dangerous form of cancer. Therefore, one should be especially attentive to the condition of all moles that are on the body. Oncological transformation of moles occurs due to damage to the DNA of skin cells, which causes genetic defects.
Malignant birthmark - photo:
Characteristics of malignant moles
- Typical moles:
Usually, a uniform color, such as tan, brown or black with a clear border, which separates the nevus from the surrounding skin. They are oval or round and usually less than ¼ inch (about 6 mm).
Most people have about 10 to 45 moles on their bodies. They continue to appear until the age of 40, and some even disappear with age.
- Atypical moles:
They differ from usual appearance and especially quantity. But this does not mean that atypical moles necessarily transform into malignant ones. However, one must be vigilant and undergo a regular examination every 6 or 12 months.
Risk factors for degeneration of moles into malignant
- severe sunburn or daily sun exposure to typical moles;
- snow-white skin, blond hair and eyes, as well as the skin of the body with freckles;
- presence of a large number of ordinary moles (more than 100);
- too bulky birthmarks or nevuses of atypical form;
- presence of oncological diseases in close relatives of the first line.
Malignant moles: obvious signs of presence
To determine the oncological disease and establish the main differences from typical moles use a system of letters A B C D E:
A)symmetry: benign moles are symmetrical. If you draw a line through a birthmark, both sides must match. In the presence of asymmetry, it is recommended to consult an oncologist.
AT)clear distinction: the boundaries of an early malignant birthmark are usually uneven. Edges can be jagged.
FROM)Colour: most benign moles have a single hue, while melanoma acquires a different color, including red.
D)diameter: melanomas often have a large size or their volume changes dramatically.
E)vagueness, texture change: benign moles with the passage of time remain the same. Should be on the alert, if the nevus began to acquire modifications.
This is a general guide, but it should be borne in mind that not allmalignant molesbehave identically. Sometimes melanoma is very difficult to differentiate from a conventional nevus, since it is not painful without prior trauma. If you suspect a cancer of a birthmark, you should definitely undergo a medical examination!
How to determine a malignant birthmark for sure?
If an atypical mole is observed, most doctors recommend a skin biopsy and histological tests. When biopsy under local anesthesia, part of the spot or the entire mole is removed for further study of the structure.
The identification of a transformed mole may require further conservative removal (removal of the entire the surface of the nevus and a few healthy tissues around it) in order to make sure that the formation does not have a malignant character.
Some doctors recommend conducting dermatoscopy for an accurate assessment of the condition of the birthmark. In this case, the pigment of the skin and blood vessels is evaluated by sampling the sample of the mole.
How Malignant Birthmarks Look: Photos and Characteristics
It is important for a person to monitor the condition of the skin and the presence of moles, especially if there are more than 50 on their bodies.
Malignant changes in moles include:
- Darkening of color:
This is one of the possible signs of transformation of a healthy birthmark in melanoma. Such a mole can have about a centimeter in the crosspiece.
If the mole is characterized by inflamed area around it, it may indicate a malignant process. For example, a section of 7 mm near the widest edge sharply differs from the original typical mole.
- Wrong borders of a birthmark:
They talk about her malignant character. Typical nevuses have a smooth surface and borders as well as a round shape.
- Melanoma of irregular shape and color:
Even a very small mole (about 4 or 5 mm across) can have oncological changes.Malignant neoplasmshave a different color around their axis than at the base. Therefore, the unequal color and shape should be checked by an oncologist.
- The spread of melanoma:
The formation of darkened areas around the primary mole indicates an atypical process. You should see a doctor as soon as possible.
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Malignant birthmarks: what should be the treatment?
The only reliable method of melanoma treatment is surgical excision.
The doctor enters an anesthetic, and then makes a cut along the drawn lines. For small malignant moles, the whole procedure takes about 30 minutes. A tissue sample is sent to the laboratory to examine the tumor surface to determine the level of prevalence.
Cancerous skin diseases are excised in accordance with the following recommendations:
- The surgeon removes, - 1 cm of healthy skin surrounding the tumor and removes the skin layers to fatty tissues.
- When resection of an invasive melanoma, which is 1 mm or less in thickness, the surrounding skin edges are removed with an extension of up to 1 cm. Also, all layers of skin are cut to the fascia (layers of tissue covering the muscles).
- If the melanoma is from 1 to 2 mm thick, take 1-2 cm with a margin.
- Ifmalignant molethickness, 1 mm and more - 2 cm are removed.
When metastasizing a malignant birthmark, the removal of nearby lymph nodes is recommended. In later stages, immunotherapy or chemotherapy may be used.
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Malignant birthmarks: prognosis and survival
The most useful criterion for determining the level of survival is the thickness of the tumor, which is measured in centimeters and is called the "Breslow depth". Also, the prognostic indicator depends on the level of Clark - the amount of layers affected by the oncology process.
Thin melanomas (less than 1 cm) have excellent rates of treatment effectiveness.Malignant neoplasmswith a thicker structure have less optimistic predictions..