Neoplasms on the skin
The main function of the skin is the formation of a barrier between the body and the external environment. Skin tissues that protect the body from the penetration of pathogens are found in permanent contact with aggressive environmental, chemical, physical and occupational factors.
The histological structure of the epithelium includes three main layers, which are represented by various cellular elements.Neoplasms on the skincan occur at each of these levels. In connection with the fact that the source of the tumor are different types of cells, there is a large number of nosological forms of skin oncology.
According to statistical data, the majority of tumors are malignant lesions in the form of: melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
Etiology of skin oncology
The main provoking factor of cutaneous neoplasms is ultraviolet radiation. Scientific research, based on the study of genetic changes in the body, the localization of tumors and geographical location, indicate the key importance of sunlight in the occurrence of cancer degeneration of the epithelium. Also, a significant role in the formation of the tumor is carcinogenic substances, which are represented by arsenic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
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Types of neoplasms on the skin
According to international standards, skin cancers are divided into three main groups:
- Actinic keratosis
This precancerous disease occurs in the skin that has been chronically exposed to insolation. The danger of solar keratosis is a high probability of conversion into squamous cell carcinoma. The disease is mainly observed in people older than 45 years. Eruptions with senile keratoma are localized in the open areas of the skin and manifest as a round, reddish color of the plaque. The surface of the neoplasm has a rough structure and is covered with keratinized epidermal cells.
- Bowen's disease
The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of atypical skin cells. Since the disease is accompanied by increased division of epidermal cells, the development of squamous cell carcinoma is considered to be the main complication. The favorite location for the concentration of lesions is the skin of the forehead, the temporal region and the phalanx of the arm.
Clinical symptoms of Bowen's disease include the presence of pink spots with uneven and raised edges, the roughness of the surface of the elements of the lesion.
The disease progresses very slowly and retains the ability to spontaneously heal. However, with untimely treatment, the disease can be transformed into squamous cell carcinoma after a few years.
Benign neoplasm of skin:
This benign lesion of the epidermis, which manifests itself in the form of a warty growth of skin tissues.
- Seborrheic wart, which is also called senile papilloma
It is a clear, gumline element. The emergence of pathology is associated with proliferative disorders in the basal layer of the skin.
This is a fast-growing benign skin cancer of the face and hands. The disease is characterized by the formation of a dense node with horn masses in the central part. After reaching 2-3 cm in diameter, the tumor disintegrates with the formation of a scar. Cancer degeneration of such an oncology is almost never found.
- Pigmentary nevi
Include a group of neoplasms from skin pigment cells. Nevus rashes have a dark color due to the large number of melanocytes. Some of these tumors can turn into cancerous diseases.
It is a benign tumor that develops from the connective tissue elements of the skin. Neoplasm has the appearance of pigmented nodular growths of a single or multiple nature.
This is a benign lesion of the inner wall of blood vessels, which is manifested by superficial spots mainly on the skin of the face. With a finger pressure on the affected area, the tumor disappears.
By histological structure is considered a tumor of adipose tissue and is a soft knotty lesion of the skin.
Malignant neoplasm on skin:
This is a malignant lesion of the basal layer of the dermis, which is the most common type of skin cancer. The characteristic features of basal cell carcinoma are: invasive growth, infiltration of adjacent tissues and the absence of metastatic foci. Element of defeat is a single papule with bleeding erosion in its central part.
- Squamous cell carcinoma
It is a malignant degeneration of the epidermal tissues, which is characterized by the destruction of nearby tissues and the formation of metastases. The disease manifests itself in the corneal compaction of the skin with the subsequent formation of a non-healing ulcer.
This is the most aggressively growing malignant tumor in the form of pigmented papules or tuberous neoplasms.
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Methods of treatment of cutaneous neoplasms
The method of therapy for skin oncology is determined by an oncologist, depending on the type of tumor, the nature of growth and the prevalence of the process.
Removal of neoplasm of skinis the main method of treatment and consists in complete excision of cancer tissues, nearby healthy cells and regional lymph nodes.
Additional methods of treating skin oncology are cryodestruction, radiation therapy and chemotherapy..