Vascular cancer predominantly develops as angiosarcoma, which is considered a malignant neoplasm of the internal vascular wall. The disease can be localized, practically, in any part of the body. In most cases, the cancer is located in the skin, breast, brain, liver and spleen. As a percentage, most of the angiosarcoma falls on the skin area. In some cases, oncogenesis is detected in the deep layers of the epidermis, which is called subcutaneous angiosarcoma. This pathology affects both men and women equally. In patients of childhood, oncology of blood vessels is practically not found.
Cancer of blood vessels: causes of development
In most clinical cases, the etiology of angiosarcoma remains unknown. To predisposing factors of formation of cancerous neoplasm of vessels are:
- Chronic lymphedema, which is an edema of some part of the body due to the accumulation of interstitial fluid in it.
- Exposure to ionizing radiation.
- Contact of skin with such mutagens as chlorovinyl, arsenic and thorium dioxide.
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Symptoms of vascular cancer
Signs of cancer of blood vessels, mainly manifested when localizing malignant neoplasm in the thickness of the skin. Most patients complain about long-lasting non-healing bruises, infectious lesions or wound surfaces. Particular alertness is caused by the formation of such elements in the zone of application of radiation therapy. A soft subcutaneous lump of violet may also indicate a cancer tumor.
Is there cancer of blood vesselsinternal organs? In rare cases, such a pathology is diagnosed, but the diagnosis is made at later stages, when mutated tissues have a negative effect on nearby structures.
Methods for diagnosis of cancerous lesions of blood vessels
The examination of the cancer patient begins with a physical examination of the affected area. So, in case of superficial location of the tumor, this is enough to establish a preliminary diagnosis. Later the patient is sampled a small part of the tumor. The biopsy involves a histological and cytological examination of a biopsy in a specialized laboratory. This study establishes the stage and tissue belonging to oncology.
Cancer of the vessels of the brainor internal organs requires more detailed diagnosis. In such cases, the following studies are performed on the patient:
This X-ray method involves the introduction of a contrast medium into the blood vessel, which increases the contrast of the image. With the help angiorentgenography the doctor finds out the localization of malignant neoplasm.
- Magnetic resonance and computed tomography:
They represent a layer-by-layer X-ray scan of the pathological area of the body. Digital processing of the results of the study increases the accuracy and reliability of the survey.
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What should be the treatment for vascular cancer?
A key technique for the therapy of malignant damage to blood vessels is a surgical operation. Chemotherapy and radiation treatment are important parts of the general anti-cancer effects, but they act as adjunctive therapy. The use of cytostatic agents and ionizing radiation takes place before and during the postoperative period.
In the course of a radical intervention, the oncologist surgeon dissects all mutated tissues along with a portion of nearby healthy structures. In the early stages of the oncological process, the tumor, as a rule, can be completely removed. In the late phase of the disease, doctors have difficulty in completely removing the tumor due to the infiltration of mutated cells.
Special attention is required oncologic foci in the brain. In such cases, specialists prefer stereotaxic therapy. This radiosurgery is a robotic technique for high-precision irradiation of the tissues of the central nervous system. Technologies "gamma knife" and "cyber-knife" are painless and bloodless operations, in which the computer program calculates the necessary dose of radiological radiation and the angle of impact.
Prognosis for patients with angiosarcoma
The prognosis of the results of angiosarcoma treatment depends on the stage and size of the malignant neoplasm. Unfortunately, most clinical cases of the diagnosis of vascular cancer occur with a significant spread of the tumor. The long-term results of angiosarcomas in the terminal phase of the disease are unfavorable. This is due to the inability to fully remove pathology.
The most positive forecast doctors give to patients with small tumors of the skin. In such cases, the surgeon conducts radical excision of oncology, which provides oncological recovery or persistent remission.
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Recommendations for patients after surgical removal of vascular cancer
The oncologists are advised to visit the medical institution on the following schedule for the patients undergoing surgery:
- The first two years after the operation - once every three months.
- From 2 to 5 years after radical intervention - once every six months.
During the preventive examination, the expert examines the skin, palpates the regional lymph nodes and in case of suspected relapse appoint additional research.
Vascular Cancer, which was re-formed, requires immediate treatment using a combination of surgery, radiation exposure and chemotherapy..