Melanoma: forecast and what to expect?
In the human skin contains a large number of melanocytes - cells that produce a special pigment (melanin). Malignant neoplasm consisting of these elements is characterized by aggressive course and early formation of metastases.Melanoma,forecastwhich in most cases is unfavorable, can be cured only at the initial stage of oncological growth. The main problem of this pathology lies in the fact that even a small-sized tumor secretes cancer cells into the lymphatic and circulatory system. As a result, secondary cancer is formed in distant organs.
With such a disease asmelanoma of the skin,forecastdepends on the localization of the primary focus. Typical sites of malignant tumor formation are:
- Skin covers, which account for about 90% of all melanoma pathologies.
- Retina of the eyes.
- Mucous membrane of the oral cavity, rectum or external genitalia.
Melanoma: prognosis depending on the form of education
The diagnosis and cure of the patient is directly dependent on the form of the clinical course.
- Surface-spreading tumor:
It accounts for 70% of all cancers and is characterized by the horizontal development of the pathological process. Superficial melanoma - the prognosis of life as a whole is favorable.
- Nodular form:
It occurs in 15% of cancer patients. The disease is mainly found in men. The clinical course is accompanied by a profound spread of the mutation, which causes the negative results and the overall prognosis of therapy.
- Acrolentiginoid neoplasm:
The subungual mutation, in most cases, is observed in dark-skinned patients.Melanoma of the nail - forecastwhile the most positive.
- Lentiginous formation:
Mutations are located on the spot of the pigmented spot, mainly in the face area.
Classification of skin melanoma
Melanoma of the skin - life forecasts are formed on the basis of the stage of malignant growth at which the primary diagnosis was performed.
- In the initial phase of the disease, the tumor cells are within the epidermal layer.
- In the second stage, the mutation extends into the papillary layer of the dermis.
- Malignant process is concentrated in the zone of transition of the papillary membrane into the mesh.
- Atypical cells occupy the entire mesh layer of the skin.
- In the terminal phase, oncology goes beyond the skin and extends to the subcutaneous adipose tissue.
What to expect depending on the prognostic factors
The effectiveness of anticancer therapy is largely determined by the combination of a number of characteristics of a cancerous tumor, including the type and stage of cancer growth.
If melanoma pathology is diagnosed at an early stage, the postoperative survival of cancer patients is close to 100%. Significantly exacerbating the prediction of the presence of secondary foci of oncology in regional lymph nodes, which occurs in the late stages of the disease. Analyzing the statistics, doctors recommend regular preventive skin examinations at the oncologist-dermatologist.
Prognostic factors that affect the outcome of dermal cancers:
- Depth of mutation.
- The form of melanoma.
- The presence of ulcerative elements.
- Involvement of regional disease in the disease.
- Infiltration of nearby structures with tumor lymphocytes.
- Associated systemic diseases.
- Regional and distant metastases.
Melanoma - the survival prognosis allows for the infiltration of the lymph nodes. The number of such foci forms the concept of the severity of clinical course. In this case, local relapses are manifested similar atypical growth. Secondary tumor in its structure may differ from the original cause of the pathology, which is dictated by the features of the damaged internal organ.
Also, patients should take into account that the effectiveness of treatment affects the location of metastases. Thus, secondary tumors in the bones, liver and brain have the least favorable clinical course. Metastases in the lymph nodes and lungs are more qualitatively amenable to therapy.
The prognosis of survival depends on the stage
The result of treatment of cancer patients is assessed according to the five-year survival rate, which is divided into stages of oncology:
- Zero or cancer in place. 9,% of patients note a complete cure.
- The first. 85-95% of cancer patients have a positive effect of anticancer therapy. In this case, the localized focus does not exceed 2 mm in diameter without signs of ulceration.
- The second. The five-year survival rate is in the range of 45-79%. The disease is characterized by an expansion of the mutation area up to 4 mm and the presence of individual ulcerous changes.
- The third. 24-70% of patients reach the five-year limit. Pathology is accompanied by the formation of regional metastases.
- Fourth or terminal. The prognosis is sharply negative (7-10%), which is explained by the formation of secondary foci in the lungs, brain and liver.
Prognosis of melanoma of a birthmark
Chronic nevus damage and frequent exposure to ultraviolet rays, contributes to the cancerous transformation of the pigmented spot. Forecasting treatment is in the negative range.
Prognosis of eye melanoma
Malignant retinal lesions have a favorable outcome with a tumor size of up to 1 mm. The increase in pathology causes a sharp deterioration in the five-year survival rate.
Prediction of melanoma of the lungs
The spread of cancer cells in the tissues of the respiratory system requires symptomatic therapy, which is based on chemotherapy. Despite the systematic use of cytostatics,melanoma, prognosiswhich in this case is negative, is considered an inoperable pathology. This situation is indicative of the terminal phase of the disease and all treatment measures are carried out according to the symptomatic type..